Thursday, March 19, 2020
Definition and Examples of Narratio in Rhetoric In classical rhetoric, narratio is the part of an argument in which a speaker or writer provides a narrative account of what has happened and explains the nature of the case. Also called narration. Narratio was one of the classical rhetorical exercises known as the progymnasmata. Quintilian believed that narratio should be the first exercise introduced by the teacher of rhetoric. Instead of conveying knowledge, says Franklin Ankersmit, the historical narratio is essentially a proposal to look at the past from a certain point of view. (See Narratio in Historiography in Examples and Observations, below.) Examples and Observations The narratio follows the exordium and gives background information. It relates events that have occurred which provide the occasion for the speech. A narrative based on the persons should present a lively style and diverse traits of character and have three qualities: brevity, clarity, and plausibility.(John Carlson Stube, A Graeco-Roman Rhetorical Reading of the Farewell Discourse. TT Clark, 2006)[I]n a piece of deliberative rhetoric, narratio is only supposed to include the facts that are germane to the presentation the speaker wants to make to his audience, not saying more than the case demands [Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 4.2.43].(Ben Witherington, III, Grace In Galatia. TT Clark, 2004)Cicero on the NarratioAs to the rule which exacts brevity from the narration, if brevity be understood to mean no superfluous word, then the orations of L. Crassus are brief; but if by brevity be meant such stringency of language as allows not one word more than is absolutely necessary to conv ey the bare meaningthis, though occasionally useful, would often be extremely hurtful, especially to the narration, not only by causing obscurity, but by doing away with that gentle persuasiveness and insinuation which constitute its chief excellence. . .The same perspicuity ought to distinguish the narration as the rest of the speech, and is all the more imperatively demanded there, because less easily attained than in the exordium, confirmation, refutation, or peroration; and also because this part of the discourse is much more imperiled by the slightest obscurity than any other, elsewhere this defect does not extend beyond itself, but a misty and confused narration casts its dark shadow over the whole discourse; and if anything be not very clearly expressed in any other portion of the address, it can be restated in plainer terms elsewhere; but the narration is confined to one place, and cannot be repeated. The great end of perspicuity will be attained if the narration be given in ordinary language, and the occurrences related in regular and uninterrupted succession.(Cicero, De Oratore, 55 BC) Colin Powells Report to the U.N. on Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq (2003)Saddam Hussein is determined to get his hands on a nuclear bomb. He is so determined that he has made repeated covert attempts to acquire high-specification aluminum tubes from 11 different countries, even after inspections resumed. These tubes are controlled by the Nuclear Suppliers Group precisely because they can be used as centrifuges for enriching uranium. . .Most U.S. experts think they are intended to serve as rotors in centrifuges used to enrich uranium. Other experts and the Iraqis themselves argue that they are really to produce the rocket bodies for a conventional weapon, a multiple rocket launcher.I am no expert on centrifuge tubes, but just as an old Army trooper, I can tell you a couple of things: First, it strikes me as quite odd that these tubes are manufactured to a tolerance that far exceeds U.S. requirements for comparable rockets. Maybe Iraqis just manufacture their conventional weapons to a higher standard than we do, but I dont think so.Second, we actually have examined tubes from several different batches that were seized clandestinely before they reached Baghdad. What we notice in these different batches is a progression to higher and higher levels of specification, including, in the latest batch, an anodized coating on extremely smooth inner and outer surfaces. Why would they continue refining the specifications, go to all that trouble for something that, if it was a rocket, would soon be blown into shrapnel when it went off?(Secretary of State Colin Powell, address to the U.N. Security Council, Feb. 5, 2003) Narratio in HistoriographyEach attempt to define (part of) historical reality may satisfy some historians but never all of them. In other words, the link between languagei.e. the narratioand reality can never be fixed in a way acceptable to all historians, thus becoming the knowledge of a generalized knowing subject. The fact that debate and discussion have a much more prominent place in historiography [which] in other disciplines and that historiographical debate rarely, if ever, results in conceptions shared once and for all by all historians should not be seen as a sad deficiency of historiography that has to be remedied, but as a necessary consequence of the linguistic instruments used by historians.(Franklin Ankersmit, The Use of Language in the Writing of History. Working With Language: A Multidisciplinary Consideration of Language Use in Work Contexts. Walter de Gruyter, 1989)
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Not An Umlaut Not An Umlaut Not An Umlaut By Maeve Maddox A reader has posed a question about a mark he noticed in The New Yorker: In a recent copy of The New Yorker the word reÃ «lection appeared with an umlaut over the second e. I had not seen the umlaut used that way before. Ã Is the umlaut making a comeback?Ã Should it also be used in similar situations such as realignment, or reengineer or deescalate?Ã Or is the hyphen more appropriate?Ã Or nothing? Or is The New Yorker just being, well NewYorkerish? IÃ¢â¬â¢ll answer the last question first: Yes, The New Yorker is being Ã¢â¬Å"NewYorkerish.Ã¢â¬ The use of the two-dot diacritical mark in words like reÃ «lect is a notable feature of the magazineÃ¢â¬â¢s house style. Other publications are prone to ridicule this use. As for the question Ã¢â¬Å"Is the umlaut making a comeback?Ã¢â¬ IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have to contradict the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the word umlaut in reference to the two dots in the word reÃ «lection. An umlaut is a diacritical mark characteristic of German. It indicates pronunciation. For example, the u in the German words Ã ¼ber, Ã¢â¬Å"over,Ã¢â¬ and unter, Ã¢â¬Å"under,Ã¢â¬ are not pronounced the same. The umlaut in Ã ¼ber alerts the reader to a vowel sound that differs from the unrounded sound in unter. The word umlaut combines German um, Ã¢â¬Å"about,Ã¢â¬ and laut, Ã¢â¬Å"sound.Ã¢â¬ Used with English words, the two-dot diacritical mark has a different name and a different function. In English, itÃ¢â¬â¢s called a diaeresis, and its usual function is to alert the reader to the fact that two vowels written side by side are not to be pronounced together as a diphthong, but separately, as distinct vowels. The source of the word diaeresis is a Greek verb meaning Ã¢â¬Å"to divide.Ã¢â¬ A diaeresis tells us to divide two vowels. Note: The first spelling in both the OED and Merriam-Webster is diaeresis; the spelling dieresis is given Ã¢â¬Å"alsoÃ¢â¬ status. Charles Elster (The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations) prefers the spelling dieresis, because it eliminates the conglomeration of vowel letters and because his preferred pronunciation is [dy-ER-uh-sis]. He offers the secondary pronunciation [dy-AIR-uh-sis, which is the first pronunciation given in the OED. Speakers acquainted with literature, art, music, and astronomy encounter the diaeresis in such classical names as the following: DanaÃ « LaÃ «rtes PasiphaÃ « AÃ ¯da LaocoÃ ¶n BoÃ ¶tes Two common words that some speakers still write with a diaeresis are NoÃ «l and daÃ ¯s, and the diaeresis occurs in the name of the writer AnaÃ ¯s Nin. The diaeresis is also seen in English above vowels that occur at the end of certain proper names. This use indicates that the final vowel, usually e, is not silent. For example: BrontÃ « [BRON-tee], ZoÃ « [ZO-ee], ChloÃ «, [KLO-ee], BettÃ « [BET-ee]. On the assumption that readers Ã¢â¬Å"knowÃ¢â¬ how to pronounce these names, people write them without the diaeresis. However, in these days of superficial English teaching, one mustnÃ¢â¬â¢t assume. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve heard adults pronounce the name Zoe to rhyme with toe. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve heard a young teacher pronounce the surname of writing sisters Charlotte, Emily, and Anne as a one-syllable word. The New YorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the diaresesis to separate standard prefixes in words like reÃ «lection is silly. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what hyphens are for. The use of the diaeresis to clarify the pronunciation of words like daÃ ¯s, NoÃ «l, BrontÃ «, and ZoÃ «, on the other hand, is well worth a comeback. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:70 Idioms with HeartAmong vs. AmongstParataxis and Hypotaxis
Saturday, February 15, 2020
The DREAM Act - Essay Example Background: According to the website Dream Act of 2009, the proposal legislation Ã¢â¬Å"is a long anticipated Immigration Bill which was just introduced in the US Congress (both Senate and House) on March 26, 2009. This original legislation was proposed to provide millions of immigrant children who graduate from U.S. High Schools the opportunity to receive U.S. Residency (a "Green Card") after so many years of being left in the shadows by State and Federal laws.Ã¢â¬ This innovative legislation would render immigration benefits to several young individuals who are presently considered as illegal migrants in the country. And this is the very reason that why several law makers and analysts oppose this bill. For example, reputed immigration policy analyst Krikorian has asserted that Ã¢â¬Å"all amnesties have at least three harmful consequences, and the DREAM Act ignores all three. The first of these is massive fraud. Perhaps one-fourth of those legalized under the 1986 Immigration Ref orm and Control Act received amnesty fraudulently, including Mahmud Abouhalima, a leader of the first World Trade Center attack.Ã¢â¬ Hence, review of immigration enforcement is a precondition to the enactment of the proposed DREAM Act. Thesis Statement: The DREAM Act can benefit both the US economy and the young immigrants in the country provided that immigration enforcement within the provisions of the proposed Act is properly implemented and fraudulent practices are prevented. Analysis Benefits: The DREAM Act seeks to legalize the undocumented youth and young adults in the country if they fulfill certain educational criteria and effort to obtain college graduation. From an economic viewpoint, legalization of unauthorized students can be an important incentive for them to work hard and graduate from a high school. This will improve their chances of obtaining higher education. Ultimately, the overall number of college graduates in the country will increase. College graduates obta in higher salaries and hence they will yield higher tax revenues as well. The increased financial contribution of the legalized educated immigrants will repay the necessary educational investments within a few years. Thereafter, the system would provide a profit to the tax payers for several decades. Ã¢â¬Å"The impact of legalization would not be limited to increased earnings, tax revenues, and social services savings. In a stable economy, such legalization would enable thousands of young immigrants to join the legal workforce, helping businesses and the economy fill crucial needs.Ã¢â¬ (Perez, xxix) Apart from benefiting the economy in a holistic way, DREAM Act will stop the exploitation of the unauthorized students in a cash economy. Forced, illegal labor will be prevented and better life standards will be ensured. Immigration Enforcement: According to the DREAM Act of 2009 Sec. 5 (c) and (d), if the youths and young adults (who arrived in the United States before 16 years of ag e) have graduated from the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s high school, achieved a GED, and are pursuing a college degree (or rendering military service), they can be given permanent residency (there are several other residential, moral, and gender specific conditions too). Moreover, these potential citizens should be aged between 12 to 35 years at the time of the bill enactment. In this way, the educational requirements enforced by the DREAM Act already make the citizenship criteria even under amnesty rather strict. The way the American institutions work, only the best of the young aliens will be able to pass the education benchmarking provided by the proposed Act. Thus Ã¢â¬Å"
Sunday, February 2, 2020
U.S. Homeland Security in the Context of Global Security - Essay Example 15). As such, the perception regarding the security of the nation changed drastically, in the aftermath of the Islamic terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 upon the US. Several thousand Arabs in the US literally disappeared after these attacks. Thereafter it became evident that people could be detained indefinitely. In a related development, people taking flights had to divest themselves of parts of their attire, during security related checking (Bellavita, 2008). During this process, babies and infirm people had also been subjected to such scrutiny. In addition, it has now become commonplace for border agents to persecute economic refugees. Information regarding customers is freely provided by companies to the governmental agencies. Moreover, the secret surveillance lists are replete with mistakes that will not or cannot be rectified. In addition, parents can be separated from their children, on the grounds of not possessing the necessary documents. At the same time, there has been an inexorable increase in the acceptance of racial profiling. The telephone calls, electronic mail, Internet activity and other communications of the people are routinely and clandestinely intercepted, by the governmental agencies (Bellavita, 2008). In order to have in place a globalized system of smart borders, airline passenger screening, and the tracking of financial data, it is necessary to implement harmonizing policies that integrate technologies and share information at the international level (Gates, 2012, p. 298). Moreover, the governmental rationality regarding homeland security has to be normalized at the global level. This is the impact that enhanced US Homeland Security has upon the global community. Consequently, it can be surmised that the enhanced homeland security of the US affects the global
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Macbeth's Evil Aspect Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Macbeth by William Shakespeare rrepresents unrelenting evil from beginning to end. Who is th emost evil? What motivates the evil intentions and actions? This paper intends to answer these questions. Ã Charles Lamb in On the Tragedies of Shakespeare explains the impact of evil as seen in Macbeth's initial murder: Ã The state of sublime emotion into which we are elevated by those images of night and horror which Macbeth is made to utter, that solemn prelude with which he entertains the time till the bell shall strike which is to call him to murder Duncan, - when we no longer read it in a book, when we have given up that vantage-ground of abstraction which reading possesses over seeing, and come to see a man in his bodily shape before our eyes actually preparing to commit a murder, if the acting be true and impressive as I have witnessed it in Mr. K's performance of that part, the painful anxiety about the act, the natural longing to prevent it while it yet seems unperpetrated, the too close pressing semblance of reality, giveÃ a pain and an uneasiness [. . .]. (134) Ã L.C. Knights in the essay "Macbeth" specifies the particular species of evil present within the play: Ã Macbeth defines a particular kind of evil - the evil that results from a lust for power. The defining, as in all the tragedies, is in strictly poetic and dramatic terms. It is certainly not an abstract formulation, but lies rather in the drawing out of necessary consequences and implications of that lust both in the external and the spiritual worlds. Its meaning, therefore, is revealed in the expansion and unfolding of what lies within the initial evil, in terms of direct human experience. (93) Ã ... ...acbeth." The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972. Ã Knights, L.C. "Macbeth." Shakespeare: The Tragedies. A Collectiion of Critical Essays. Alfred Harbage, ed. Englewwod Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. Ã Lamb, Charles. On the Tragedies of Shakespeare. N.p.: n.p.. 1811. Rpt in Shakespearean Tragedy. Bratchell, D. F. New York, NY: Routledge, 1990. Ã Mack, Maynard. Everybody's Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Ã Warren, Roger. Shakespeare Survey 30.Ã N.p.: n.p., 1977. Pp. 177-78. Rpt. in Shakespeare in the Theatre: An Anthology of Criticism. Stanley Wells, ed. England: Oxford University Press, 2000. Ã Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1957. Ã
Friday, January 17, 2020
| Separation of a Salt, Sand, and Water Mixture| Jamie Schurz and Austin Hoggard| | Date experiment was performed: September 6 and September 7| | | Introduction Purpose: The purpose of the experiment was to use various lab equipment and lab techniques to separate a mixture of salt, sand, and water. Background: An element is the simplest form of a substance that retains the properties of that substance. A compound is a substance formed by combining two or more elements set in fixed proportions. A mixture is a system of two or more distinct chemical substances. Unlike compounds, mixtures can be physically combined.Because the components are physically combined, they can also be separated using physical properties. Physical properties are properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter. In this lab, a mixture of salt and sand will be separated using the listed equipment and separation techniques. Hypothesis: If a mixture of sand (3. 3g), salt (1. 2g), and water is separated using filtration and boiling point, then most of the sand and salt will be recovered. Safety Information: During the experiment, appropriate safety wear should be worn at all times such as: goggles and an apron (to prevent salt or hot water from entering the eye).Beaker tongs should be used to remove the heater beaker from the appropriate heating fixture and then it should be carefully transported onto the designated pressed fiber pad to cool. Materials and Methods * * Graduated cylinder * Small beaker (100 mL) * Large beaker (600 mL) * Hot plate * Small ring * Funnel * Filter paper * Glass stir rod with rubber policeman * Hot mitts * Beaker tongs * Pressed fiber pad * Weigh boat * Electronic balance * Scoops * Salt and sand sample * water Experimental Procedure 1. Put on appropriate safety wear. 2. Begin this experiment with 47 mL of water, 1. 2 g of salt, and 3. g of sand. * Use the 100 graduated cylinder to find the 47 mL of water, reading from the meniscus. * Put the weigh boat onto the electronic balance and zero it out, then slowly add the salt until you have 1. 2 grams of it. Do the same for the sand. * Also mass the larger of the two beakers 3. Combine the 1. 2g of salt and 47 mL of water into the 100 mL beaker and stir until the salt is dissolved 4. Add the sand and wait until it settles onto the bottom of the beaker. 5. Mass the filter paper and then fold it into a small cone. Wet sides before placing into funnel that is inside a ring stand.Place larger beaker underneath funnel. 6. Slowly pour sand and salt mixture through filter paper. Let the sand dry. 7. Take large beaker with salt and water and place on top of a hot plate. Set hot plate onto its highest setting and let boil. 8. Once salt starts popping lower temperature on hot plate. When most of the water has evaporated remove from hot plate using beaker tongs and let rest on pressed fiber pad. 9. Turn hot plate off. 10. Mass out recovered sand and salt. Results Raw Data: object| Mass (g)| start ing mass of salt| 1. 2g| Starting mass of sand| 3. 3g|Dry filter paper| 0. 7g| Larger of the 2 beakers| 103. 1g| Total mass of beaker/salt (after)| 105. 3g| Mass of recovered salt| 2. 2g| Total mass of filter paper/sand (after)| 4. 1g| Mass of recovered sand| 3. 4g| Important results: * The mass of recovered salt was 2. 2g * The mass of recovered sand was 3. 4g * The percent error for the mass of recovered salt was 83% error * The percent error for the mass of the recovered sand was 3% * The percent yield for the mass of the recovered salt was 183% * The percent yield for the mass of the recovered sand was 103% Calculations:Discussion Expected results v. Actual results: In the experiment, the mass of the salt recovered was larger than the mass of the amount of salt that was started out with. This may be due to the tap water that was used not being pure or that some sand was small enough to not be filtered out. Analyze experimental error: During the experiment, instead of measuring t he water out to exactly 47mL, around 60 mL of water was used. This could have caused there to be extra water during the final measurement.There was not enough time to boil off the extra water; this was done by another person later without either partner in the group supervising. Also, when looking for the sand sample the next day, it was missing; so another groupÃ¢â¬â¢s sand data was massed instead Improvements: Having a longer time to conduct the experiment might have changed the data. Instead of leaving the sand sample in the open on a table to all classes, it may have been better for them to be separated more. Results in terms of the purpose: The goal was to get most of the salt and sand back through filtration and evaporation.Most of the sand was recovered; however there was a great deal of added mass to the salt (around 1g). The goal was met as far as data is concerned. Conclusion: The goal of the experiment was to see if using boing point and filtration could recover close t o the same amount of salt and sand put together in a mixture. The experiment revealed a percent yield of 183% for salt and 103% for sand, which does support the hypothesis that using those two techniques, about the same amount of salt and sand would be recovered.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Introduction Promoting gender equality and empowering women and girls is a priority for the United States. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s equality has came a long ways. Women used to have it very hard historically, but even today women still experience some inequality towards men. In this paper it will examine the equalities in: voting, the workplace, and sexual harassment. This paper will also so how the ethical theories of Deontology and Utilitarianism plays a part and how the ethical perspective Emotivism also plays a part. Theories and Perspective Deontology is the reason for which the act is done and the rule according to which one chooses to act (Mosser, 2013). It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deny that the acts that we do have consequences (Mosser, 2013). It insists that those roles should not play a part in our moral evaluation of such acts (Mosser, 2013). Utilitarianism is a natural way to see whether an act is the right thing to do or the wrong thing to do it is to look at the results, or consequences of the act that we do (Mosser, 2013). Utilitarianism argues that, given a set of choices, the act that we should chose is one which produces the best results (Mosser, 2013). Emotivism offers a perspective on our ethical claims that eliminates much of the traditional kind of argument based on reason (Mosser, 2013). Emotivism, instead, sees our moral evaluation as simply the expression of whether we respond to a given act by liking it or not liking it (Mosser, 2013). History The U.S. womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement had itsShow MoreRelatedDescribe the Main Principles of the Two Normative Ethical Theories of Deontology and Utilitarianism. 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