Monday, September 30, 2019

Marketing of Haagen Dazs Essay

ew York City, but soon distribution expanded throughout the east coast of the U. S. , and by 1973 Haagen-Dazs products were enjoyed by discerning customers throughout the United States. n 1976, Mr. Mattus’ daughter Doris opened the first Haagen-Dazs ® Shop. it was an immediate success, and its popularity led to a rapid expansion of Haagen-Dazs ® Shops across the country. in 1983 Mr. Mattus agreed to sell the Haagen-Dazs brand to The Pillsbury Company, which remained committed to the tradition of superior quality and innovation on which Haagen-Dazs ice cream was founded. since then, it has become a global phenomenon, available in 50 countries. the same careful attention to quality that Reuben Mattus built into every Haagen-Dazs product remains today. ce cream lovers the world over now recognize the unique Haagen-Dazs logo as synonymous with the ultimate super-premium ice cream. from the beginning, Haagen-Dazs ice cream has sought to innovate and bring new frozen dessert exp eriences to its customers, including distinctive flavors such as vanilla swiss almond, butter pecan, and dulce de leche, to name just a few. Haagen-Dazs was also the first to introduce the world to ice cream bars for a grown-up palate, with the introduction of the Haagen-Dazs brand ice cream bar line in 1986. other super-premium innovations followed, with frozen yogurt in 1991 and sorbet in 1993. o this day, the Haagen-Dazs brand remains committed to developing exceptional new super-premium frozen dessert experiences, releasing new flavors every year. Origin of brand name Mattus invented the â€Å"Danish-sounding† â€Å"Haagen-Dazs† as a tribute to Denmark’s exemplary treatment of its Jews during the Second World War, and included an outline map of Denmark on early labels. The name, however, is not Danish, which has neither an umlaut nor a digraph zs; nor does it have any meaning in any language or etymology before its creation. Mattus felt that Denmark was known for its dairy products and had a positive image in the U.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Eastern Foods Essay

Introduction Eastern Foods has a lot of restaurants and fast food outlets in some countries, and as for its expansion, the company is mapping out to build its outlets in the United Kingdom. Building work is planned to be finished by first of July, so directory boards have given the task to start up business development planning procedure from first of May. The board has also required that all major issues in terms of HRM, Accounting, Marketing, and Operations Management should be found and addressed accordingly. Part (A) In some core areas of the Eastern Foods, there is going to be discussion upon overview of the challenges in HRM, Accounting, Marketing, Operations Management, and after getting familiarized with these issues, solutions will be suggested as required. Human Resource Management First issue: HRM is going to face challenges in the sphere of recruitment as there is no employment contract signed. Absence of this documentation can wake legislative sanctions against the Eastern Foods. In addition to that, hired employees after taking their money beforehand will have an opportunity to leave the work in any time without employment contract. Second issue: obviously the company will be in tough moments at the starting stage as for deficiency skills in newly employed staff. Managers intensively seek to good employees but they do not easily find them as there are very few people with good skills and experience left unemployed in current job markets. Third issue: over exploitation of employees will drastically minimize job satisfaction degree of employees which also in turn, will make them very tired. This has always been considered as one of the major issues of any organizations. Accounting First issue: accounting machines and computers will not always operate as proper as intended. So, account department will be more worrying on this potential issue. Second issue: First and foremost problem for the Eastern Foods is undoubtedly keeping correct transactions. When every outlet depends on the main financial branch, it will not always be easy to cope with various and massive numbers of financial statements. For instance, gross sales of one outlet might be 20, 500 Euro, but other outlets may be presenting less than that amount such as 13, 874, or 12,743 Euro respectively. In this case accountants will probably make mistakes in writing them. This usually happens when accountants are not well-qualified or tired of fixed working hours. Marketing First issue: Marketing department will be facing several challenges in terms of promotions and building relationships with customers as marketing system will have to first see the outcomes and statistics of other restaurants’ trends and then decide to which target segment promote. Second issue: Provided that the Eastern Foods sets up strategies such as discounts, free drinks, and so on, it will be adversely affecting the income level, and will lead to the failure of strategic plan, thus demolishing profits gained. Second issue: External and internal designs of outlets can be unattractive to the customers. As well as ingredients and types of meals may not be liked very much. For example, clocks on the walls, color, posters, and such attractive items might not be suitable to preferences of the customers. Operations Management First issue: Operations managers will have been undergoing challenges with regard to controlling and relationship with staff at the outset. Second issue: Sudden technical problems and damages are inevitable which can put the organization in urgent case Third issue: As there is a considerable discrepancy between jobs and tasks as well as in qualifications of the whole working unit, there will appear some misunderstandings when jointly decision making activities are needed. Part (B) The two most problematic areas and their solutions First area: Human Resource Management Absence of employment contract will not only cause internal issues, but it will get down reputation of the Eastern Foods in the eyes of customers. For example, there are lots of news agencies that are ready to publish and show any such issues that occur in famous areas such as restaurants, and at the same time, governmental courts will be thinking of cessation of the Eastern Foods’ operation. Furthermore, it will be easy for employees to make frauds inside the outlets because they feel confident of slipping away in any time they wish if they have not been hired based on legal contract. Moreover, if there will be no procedural justice system in the organization such as not conveying information to the employees, then, definitely communication gap will appear. Unfortunately, job advertisements newspaper is not as effective as it was before, so the managers will have been experiencing difficulties in finding proper employees. Whoever feels over exploited, no matter, whatever is p rice or reward, they will start to show their disagreement to HRM departments. This can be explained when managers neglect to employees’ personal or health related issues, that time, they need some time but, they do not want to lose their jobs as well. Late working hours can be one of the crucial reasons for the job dissatisfaction. Solutions Solution to the first stated issue is quite simple, that is setting up legal employment contract, and other legislative documents. By doing so, the Eastern Foods will raise their satisfaction degree. In a rule, employees should feel that their rights will not be violated by the organization as well as they need to make sure if they can be one of the important parts of the organization. This means when they have power in decision making process and when they are allowed to put their candidate in leadership positions,  and when they actively take in part in elections held inside the organization. Likewise, journalists from mass media such as TV channels, and Radio can take interviews from employees about their jobs and other related themes which will increase employees’ interest toward their jobs, feeling important is great indeed. Solution to the second mentioned issues is not easy, or impossible to take into control all the time because nobody will confess their inner crimin al desire, therefore, Human Resource Management must fix security cameras in each area of operations so that it will be able to observe any deeds executed inside the organization. In addition to that it will help HRM managers to sort out efficient employees, and accordingly, those employees will be rewarded in a faith way. Moreover, when work units feel that they are under observation, then, they will not likely be spending their time out of their work place and offices, and will be doing their works respectively. The third issue can be addressed by not only publishing job advertisement on newspaper but, also, by building a good rapport with fresh graduates of universities, especially, who study in tourism faculties as they are taught well on how to communicate with customers. Also, it will be easier way to involve them in free job places as they are full of energy, and do not usually, require high level of wages, and compensation. They may not have practical skills, but they can br ing in a new atmosphere, and a new look inside the organization. Usually, customers do not like being waited, so, when the staff is younger, then, they will probably take and bring the orders faster. However, these graduates involvement should not include discrimination and unethical payment rate which can also lead to legal challenges. Second area: Marketing department Marketing department can be put into difficulties if it cannot renovate and execute its role as required. When marketing, especially, promotion strategies do not work; the Eastern Foods will not be visited by high number of customers. In this globally competitive world, all restaurant businesses are striving to offer their special promotions in various forms, for example, some of them offer cheaper prices for more order while others offer high quality and service. Accordingly, it will not be easy for the Eastern Foods to create special ways to draw customers’ attention. One mistakenly  launched promotional program can be costly for the organization that in turn, may lead to imprint not interesting view on potential customers’ minds. What is more, the organization may not be able to persuade the main finance department to budget some money for launching promotional programs. For instance, if some discounts offered at the outset will not prove it unless the intended amo unt of profits comes. As a result, damage cannot be covered, and marketing department will have to ask another amount to launch a second program, in this case, directors of the Eastern Foods will not be very happy, and can put pressure onto the marketing department. Design of the outlets might not be suitable to tradition, culture and religion of the country. If so, disagreements from the local people will ruin authority of the whole organization, no matter how well it is cooking, and how health and cheap prices are, simply one mistakenly chosen design, and pictures on the wall can decrease potential clients’ anticipation. More than that, differences on the course of meals and drinks may be absent, so, customers will probably be demanding new types and new tastes, and if their demand cannot be met as early as possible, then, they will likely prefer to change their regular restaurants. This issue might happen starting from the third month of operation when people start too fed up with unchangeable dishes. Solutions The first problem can be solved by using various types of promotions. For instance, the company can choose direct advertising in which the Eastern Foods will send messages and letters directly to the potential customers. However, direct advertisement is getting more unfavorable, so, the company can address another type that is â€Å"public relations† in which the owner of the company will talk about his incipient activities, and what he has experienced, in short, life story of the company. It will increase awareness of the customers about the company which means success. Moreover, taking in part in business conferences and events can help the organization to be known in the regions, and here the store managers must get valuable advices from marketing department on what kind of preparations should they do beforehand they participate in business events. As for mass media, the Eastern Foods should hold some charity, and celebration events, and should invite radio and the TV corre spondents. Additionally, famous actors,  actress, and singers should be invited once in a week to each outlet, as we know, youngsters are keen to meet with their favorites, so they will automatically become regular clients of the Eastern Foods if they are given such kind of chance. Also, famous show programs should also be invited to lead their programs in one of the outlets once in a month. Another noticeable target area is football fans, if facilities such as television sets, special cozy cabins, and discounts are provided in every football match of the region, and then the company will undoubtedly succeed with only this market segmentation. Part (C) In general, the Eastern Foods’ primary focus should be pointed to the marketing areas and HRM because once the staffs employed are well qualified, have satisfactory skills, and do their jobs very well, then, the company will not have to be concerned on this issue in the future. Likewise, if marketing can find out how to attract customers, and deal with design, taste issue, then, customers’ number will be relatively high. Accounting personnel should not neglect to any tiny number and details in the calculation process, and all operations managers should be responsible for providing needed help, advice, and supply always on time. Moreover, technical advancements such as security cameras can lessen the number of crimes and frauds inside the company. Conclusion It can be concluded that HRM and Marketing are the two key issue areas, and the other areas such as accounting should be interminably checked, and operations managers should evaluate, observe, and control all works accordingly. Legal aspects have been discussed as well, and the roles of mass media in the success of the Eastern Foods have been found to be significantly important. References: 1. Lynch, Frances (1984) ‘Resolving the Paradox of the Monnet Plan: National and International Planning in French Reconstruction’ Economic History Review xxxvii(2): 229-43. Lynch, Frances (1997) 2. Mackinnon, Danny, Andrew Cumbers and Keith Chapman (2002) ‘Learning, Innovation and Regional Development: A Critical Appraisal of Recent Debates’ Progress in Human Geography 26: 293-311. 3. Global Internet Statistics (by Language) (2004),

Saturday, September 28, 2019

How not to talk to your kids Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

How not to talk to your kids - Essay Example The findings revealed that children who were praised according to effort exemplified improved performance; while those praised according to intelligence stagnated. The rationale for the outcome was explained by Dweck, to wit: â€Å"Emphasizing effort gives a child a variable that they can control,† she explains. â€Å"They come to see themselves as in control of their success. Emphasizing natural intelligence takes it out of the child’s control, and it provides no good recipe for responding to a failure† (Bronson 2). One is therefore significantly impressed and intrigued by the contention of Dweck and one’s diverse reactions ranged from disbelief, amazement, and finally, succumbed to agree. There were various supporting ideas that were validated through considerable research to establish credibility to the arguments that were presented in the article. One particular point that was deemed to be of considerable importance was the rationale for the outcome: by praising children based on effort, they could always exert more to achieve more. On the contrary, by praising children based on intelligence, children would be typecast into that perception and based future decisions to conform to this so that risk taking is avoided. For example, one’s personal experience was observing my nephews who showed considerable laziness in studying their lessons. When their parents showered them with praises such as: â€Å"Hey guys, you are such smart kids like you Dad. Go on and study so that you will keep up your good grades.† My nephews would reply: â€Å"We do not need to study, Mom. We already know our lessons.† And therefore, the outcome of not studying was likewise not appropriately addressed, whether they got good grades, average, or low grades. Unlike what was emphasized by Bronson in the article that cited in one of th e experiments conducted at Life Sciences where students were â€Å"predominantly minority and low achieving† (Bronson 2), the study conducted by

Friday, September 27, 2019

Reading response and discuss question Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reading response and discuss question - Essay Example ies remains extremely authoritative in establishing interpretive strategies for increasing audience acceptance and influencing their view of a masterpiece film. In exploring cultural construction of masterpiece films, Luckett critically evaluated Fantasia during its original release and reissues by examining the film’s publicity, reviews, and marketing. According to Luckett’s analysis, the film produced by Disney starred mainly due to its open publicity in road shows, use of modern technology including home theater appliances, and its receptions based on culture. For instance, based on application of new technologies, Disney decided to help the audience construct a home culture by establishing home theatre systems and video libraries as opposed to watching films in cinema theatres (Luckett 233). It is indispensable to note that the technique increased sales (Luckett 231). There exists an imperative culture and social context behind acceptance of a new film by audience. Reception studies remains authoritative in understanding particular social and historical aspects associated with audience interpretation and consequent response to a film. In publication and review of a film, it is domineering for a production company to establish public culture in relation to their interpretation and understanding of films. Representing audience interests in relation to gender questions, culture, and social expectations is imperative in construction a public culture that would assist in making a film masterpiece. Therefore, does publicity and review of a film inherently a film affect its consequent audience

Thursday, September 26, 2019

RFID is increasingly used in logistics. Discuss its advantages and Essay

RFID is increasingly used in logistics. Discuss its advantages and disadvantages from a global perspective - Essay Example On an average more than one third of a non IT company’s revenue comes from the products and services that did not exist even five years ago (Nambisan, 2009). This data is quite shocking as most of the IT companies do not even depend heavily on IT services (Tan, 2002). In the mid 1990s the introduction of IT services has enhanced the product development process of the manufacturing companies (Nambisan, 2009). The operational efficiencies of the companies are mainly due to the effective contribution of IT services. Issues related to innovative design for manufacturing units, supplying goods, schedule optimization and production process can be solved easily. The second transformation in industries took place with the invention of internet and digitization of products and services. IT has increased the revenue of companies which deal in sales of products and services and reduced their problems. IT has reduced the communication gap between customers and companies (Nambisan, 2009). Different types of IT tools have been invented to support project management and product development. ... Introduction to logistics Logistics means the organized movement of goods, services and employees. The scenario of logistics industry has transformed because of globalization. The logistics system includes inventory, warehousing, facility site location, protective packaging, cargo insurance, handling of payments etc. Initially logistics was used for military purposes but now it is used for commercial activities. Trade and commerce has increased rapidly due to logistics system. Cost associated with logistics is known as transport and insurance costs. In logistics, channels are the most important component. Distribution channel help in physical movement of goods whereas transactional channels help in contracting and trading of goods (Wood, 2004). Importance of logistics The logistics are of economic and governmental importance because it facilitates trade and balance of payment. The success of a company usually depends on the successful operation of its logistic company. (Ailawadi and Singh, 2005). Logistics is also important for defence purposes because it helps in carrying defence equipments. It has helped in planning and coordination of activities in companies. It also helps in lowering and reduction of warehousing and storage costs of the company. Therefore, we can conclude that logistics plays an important role in developing and integrating an economy (Wood, 2004). Introduction to Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) RFID is a gadget that uses wireless data to identify data from tagged objects, people and animals. RFID is a cost effective technology used by many companies to enhance the efficiency levels of the workers. The technology was incorporated by companies like Walmart and Department of Defense (DoD). In 2003, Walmart introduced this

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Fashion Marketing and Advertising. Marks & Spencer Essay

Fashion Marketing and Advertising. Marks & Spencer - Essay Example The essay "Fashion Marketing and Advertising" examines the strategies of marketing in fashion. Limited Collection brand is the fashion-forward brand of M&S created last 2004. The new face of Limited Collection is aimed to attract the young generation of women below -35. According to M&S, â€Å"it is the latest contemporary cut straight from the catwalk and brings a whole new attitude to style.† Though M&S had established its name over years, Limited Collection brand being new to the industry will be open to possibilities of threats from the simplest to the most complicated one that should not be overlooked. Generally, M&S makes the use of certain management strategies to anticipate threats like competition in the current retail environment. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to systematically gathered data, record and analysis of information concerning Limited Collection brand in the external marketing environment. Without this marketing research it would be impossible to deal with the competitors by making use of different marketing strategies. A marketing and advertising plan about the Limited Collection brand will be given focus as well as the analysis on how M&S manage to undertake the competition in the current retail environment that would make the brand successful. The success of the business lies entirely to the customers. Once the companies have them, customer should be satisfied by meeting their needs and demands. M&S is doing the same way, to prioritize its 21 million weekly customers.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Global Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Global Marketing - Essay Example Because of this free flow of information, it has to be said that there has been a tremendous rise of competition in the global market place. As of the recent times, many companies are focusing on entering many new markets for the purpose of clocking significant business growth opportunities. It has to be said that this particular project discusses about the internationally acclaimed ethical cosmetic and beauty product offering company Body Shop and its efforts related to entering the market of China. Introduction The world of the 21st century is moving at a rapid pace. The tremendous momentum of the pace is being spearheaded on the basis of fast growth and rapid development. It is of considerable importance to mention that the rapid growth of the telecommunication technology has acted as a major catalyst in promoting tremendous growth for the emergence of high speed internet technology. It is largely relevant to mention that the faster penetration of the internet has resulted in a tr emendous spike of acceptance of Smartphones in the markets of both the developed as well as developing economies. Because of the smooth and seamless integration of the developed world with the developing economies on the lines of the technology medium, it has to be said that the world in itself has transformed into a single and well connected entity. It has to be said that the globally connected entity has resulted in the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Imagination & Identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Imagination & Identity - Essay Example From the time that one is young, there is a perception and specific reality that is created in terms of identity. Imaginary worlds and friends are some of the main concepts that are applied to this and which create a specific sense of what it means to belong to a specific identity or group. â€Å"Most under – sevens have an invisible friend, and children create their imaginary playmates not out of trauma but out of a serene sense of the possibilities of fiction – sometimes as figures of pure fantasy, sometimes, as observations of grownup manners† (Gopnik, 253). The ability to create an identity and sense of reality through imagination and by mimicking the identity of others is one which can then be expected to stay with children while growing older. This reality and vision is one which is combined not only with ideas of fiction but also with expectations of what one is to become. â€Å"We were always about becoming, not being, about the prospects for the future, not about the inheritance of the past† (Lapham, 45). Both of these articles agree that there is the need to create something from the imagination and to keep depicting that specific reality. The fiction then becomes a sense of identity that one grows into, either by imagining something, mimicking adult behaviors or by believing what one should be. The concept of building a reality out of imagination then leads into the capacity of creating identity. The creation of identity moves beyond the labels in which one holds, such as being a New Yorker or a scientist. More important, are behaviors and mannerisms that are associated with the identity and labels which one believes they have. For instance, when defining New Yorkers, the identity becomes: â€Å"New Yorkers are busy for obvious reasons: they have husbands and wives and careers and children they have the Gauguin show to see and their personal trainers and

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Stereotype, whether positive or negative, are harmful Essay Example for Free

Stereotype, whether positive or negative, are harmful Essay In todays world, many people has different stereotype about somebody. There are positive and negative, but both of them are harmful to people. People always stereotype about other people who they dont fully know them. In Archbishop Riordan High School, most of the students think Chinese students are very good at math. In fact, some of the Chinese students are very bad at math. This maybe harmful to those Chinese students who did badly at math, because it makes them think they are different to a normal Chinese student. It shows not only negative stereotype will be harmful to people but also positive stereotype will cause harmful to people. Some writer make positive and negative on their essay. In I Want a Wife, Judy Brady is a female who stands on a male view about getting a wife. She discuss about what kinds of wife a male would want to get. She mentions I want a wife who will take care of my physical needs, I want a wife who will take care of the details of my social life, and I want a wife who is sensitive to my sexual needs. (P. 37) She thinks male usually make both positive and negative stereotype about female. In this essay, male think a female has to care everything about his husband, take care of the children, and stay home cleaning. In fact, females are getting more independents today. They want to get money by themselves and dont want to stay home take care of everything. Even though it is positive stereotype about a female who can take care of everything that happens at home, but it is still making negative stereotype about a female cant work other than staying home. This will cause harmful to a female who is going to marry a person that stereotype female like the writer did. Another writer that writes essay about stereotype is Brent staples. He writes about his experiences of racism or stereotype in Black Men and Public Space. He mentions At dark, shadowy intersection, I could cross in front of a car stopped at a traffic light and elicit the thunk, thunk, thunk, thunk of the driver-black, white, male, or female- hammering down the door locks. (P. 2) This is showing people stereotype about the writer. They think he may take their car or do something bad to them, so they lock the door locks. Another time is One day, rushing into the office of a magazine I was writing for with a deadline story in hand, I was mistaken for a burglar. The office manager called security and, with an ad hoc posse, pursued me through the labyrinthine halls, nearly to my editors door. (P. 3) The office manager has stereotype the writer as a burglar even though he is working at the office of a magazine. This might make the writer feel harmful, because people make negative stereotype about him as a bad person, like a burglar. There is a stereotype called cultural stereotype. Judith Ortiz Cofer writes an essay called The Myth of the Latin woman which is about cultural stereotype. This essay is about a Latin girl facing different culture people. She remembers what happens to her at her first dance. I remember the boy who took me to my first formal dance leaning over to plant a sloppy, over-eager kiss painfully on my mouth; when I didnt respond with sufficient passion, he remarked resentfully: I thought you Latin girls were supposed to mature early, (P. 106) The boy mentions about Latin girls were suppose to mature early, which shows this boy is making a positive cultural stereotyping about the writer. In fact, the writer didnt grow into womanhood yet and this might cause harm to the writers heart. I Want a Wife, Black Men and Public Space and The Myth of the Latin Woman had proved example of both positive and negative stereotype. Some people think it is fine to make positive stereotype about other people. In fact, these three essays had proved that not only negative stereotype will cause harmful to people, but also positive stereotype will cause harmful to people. Hopefully, people will stop causing harmful to other people by stop stereotyping about other.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Linguistics research Essay Example for Free

Linguistics research Essay 1. Linguistics: Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language. 2. Phonology: The study of how sounds are put together and used in communication is called phonology. 3. Syntax: The study of how morphemes and words are combined to form sentences is called syntax. . 4 Design features: it referred to the defining properties of human language that tell the difference between human language that tell the difference between human language and any system of animal communication. 5. Psycholinguistics: The study of language with reference to the workings of mind is called psycholinguistics. 6. Language: Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. 7. Phonetics: The study of sounds which are used in linguistic communication is called phonetics. 8. Morphology: The study of the way in which morphemes are arranged to form words is called morphology. 9. Parole: it referred to the actual phenomena or data of linguistics. V. Answer the following questions as comprehensively as possible. Give examples for illustration if necessary: 1. Language is generally defined as a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. Explain it in detail. First of all, language is a system, because Elements of language are com ­ bined according to rules. Secondly, language is arbitrary because there is no intrinsic connection between form and meaning, or between the sign and what it stands for. Different languages have different words for the same ob ­ject in the world. This fact is a good illustration of the arbitrary nature of language. This also explains the symbolic nature of language: words are just Symbols; they are associated with objects, actions, ideas, etc. by conven ­ tion. Thirdly, language is vocal because the primary medium is sound for all languages, no matter how well developed their writing systems are. The term human in the definition indicates that language is possessed by human beings only and is very different from the communication systems of other living creatures. The term â€Å"communication means that language makes it possible for its users to talk to each other and fulfill their commu ­ nicative needs. 2. What are the design features of human language? Illustrate them with examples. 1) Arbitrariness As mentioned earlier, the arbitrary property of language means that there is no logical connection between meanings and sounds. For instance, there is no nec ­ essary relationship between the word elephant and the animal it symbolizes. In addition, different sounds are used to refer to the same object in different languages, and even within the same language, the same sound does not refer to the same thing. However, language is not entirely arbitrary. There are words which are created in the imitation of sounds by sounds, such as crash, bang in English. Besides, some compound words are also not entirely arbitrary. But the non-arbitrary words are quite limited in number. The arbitrary nature of language makes it possible for language to have an unlimited source of expressions. 2) Productivity Language is productive or creative in that it makes possible the con ­ struction and interpretation of new signals by its users. This is why they can produce and understand an infinitely large number of sentences, including sentences that they have never said or heard before. They can send messages which no one else has ever sent before. Productivity is unique to human language. Most animal communication systems appear to be highly restricted with respect to the number of different signals that their users can send and receive. 3) Duality The duality nature of language means that language is a system, which consists of two sets of structure, or two levels, one of sounds and the other of meanings. At the lower or the basic level, there is the structure of sounds, which are meaningless, discrete, individual sounds. But the sounds of language can be combined according to rules into units of meaning such as morphemes and words, which, at the higher level, can be arranged into sentences. This duality of structure or dou ­ ble articulation of language enables its users to talk about anything within their knowledge. No animal communication system has duality or even comes near to possessing it. 4) Displacement Displacement means that language can be used to refer to things which are present or not present, real or imagined matters in the past, present, or future, or in far-away places. In other words, language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker. Animal calls are mainly uttered in response to immediate changes of situation. 5) Cultural transmission Human beings were born with the ability to acquire language, but the details of any language are not genetically transmitted or passed down by instinct. They have to be taught and learned, but animal call systems are genetically trans ­ mitted. 3. How do you understand the distinction between a synchronic study and a diachronic study? The description of a language at some point in time is a Synchronic study; the de ­ scription of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic study. A synchronic study of language describes a language as it is at some particular point in time, while a diachronic study of language is the study of the historical development of language over a period of time. 4. Why does modern linguistics regard the spoken form of language as primary, not the written? First, the spoken form is prior to the writ ­ ten form and most writing systems are derived from The spoken form of lan ­ guage. Second, the spoken form plays a greater role than writing in terms of the amount of information conveyed and it serves a wider range of purposes finally, the spoken form is the medium through which we acquire our mother tongue. 5. What are the major distinctions between langue and parole? The distinct, ion between langue, and parole was made by the famous Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure early this century. Langue refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community, and parole refers to the realization of langue in actual use. Langue is the set of conventions and rules which language users all have to follow while parole is the concrete use of the conventions and the application of the rules. Langue is abstract; it is not the language people actually use, but parole is concrete; it refers to the naturally occurring language events. Langue is relatively stable, it does not change frequently; while parole varies from person to person, and from situation to situation. 6. (1) What if there were no language? (2) What if there were only one language the world over? (3) What can we learn from this Bible story? Language is powerful as a tool of human communication. 7. (1) What measures do you suggest for protecting dialects as well as languages? (2) Do you think that someday people all over the world will speak only one language, or someday no dialect will exist? 8. Can our pets learn human languages? Why or why not? No. They are genetically not endowed with the 9. What role does body language play in language commun

Friday, September 20, 2019

The User Experience in Mobile Computing

The User Experience in Mobile Computing ABSTRACT Mobile phones have become a necessity for almost every person throughout the world. Cell phones have become almost a status symbol in addition to the convenience and security that comes from owning them. In this article, We would like to discuss the importance of the user experience and the user interface in Mobiles/Soft Wearables. 1INTRODUCTION In this paper, We would discuss the user experience/ user interface with mobiles/soft wearables in the past, current and future. We would also look at design approach to soft wearables, material explorations. At the end we would see the challenges or difficulties in mobile user experience. 2DISCUSSION Scientists have researched a lot regarding the user experience in Mobiles/Wearables. Early research in this field frequently encouraged people to share their devices to create a collective experience or reach a common goal. Most of this first-wave  research initially looked at the use of smartphones (and tablets) to study mobile collocated interactions. As a result, early mobile collocated interactions research tended to be device-centric. Nowadays, Computers have transitioned from being in a large room (e.g., ENIAC), to our desks (e.g., PCs), to a bag (e.g., laptops), and to our pockets (e.g., mobile phones). Wearable computers (e.g., the WIMM watch) have continued the trend towards ever-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists (e.g., Apple Watch) or other parts of the body (e.g., Google Glass, Microsoft HoloLens). While the first-wave of mobile collocated interactions seemed device-centric, this current second wave is user experience-centric. Such novel mobile collocated interactions may include clothing, accessories, prosthetics, and jewelry. One s uch example is Its About Time which explores extending smartwatch interactions to turn personal wearables into public displays. Adopting ideas of proxemics could allow for designers to better shape each individuals personal motivations and perceptions of their interactions with both devices and others, to better support their experiences. Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. When designing soft wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity to material detail; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies with diverse shapes and movement capabilities openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; as well as consideration of wearers intimate relations with technology. Soft wearables allow for greater scope within these requirements. Using smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces in wearables opens up the opportunity to engage with wearers senses in diverse and subtle ways. A knitted garment for example can deform and reform as the body moves and pushes against the fabric. When augmented with smart capabilities, such deformations may be used to sense engagement and trigger events. But, There are a number of technological challenges for designing user experience such as binding, security, spatial registration, heterogeneous platforms and sensors, non-touch interaction as well as development and runtime environments. In addition to these, there are social challenges such as privacy, social acceptability, social participation, social exclusion and social engagement. There are a number of Perceptual and Physiological challenges such as varying display resolutions, luminance, effective visual fidelities, visual interference, color or contrast in display overlap which can be experienced with body proximate ecosystems. 4 CONCLUSION Today, mobile application development technology is evolving at a very shocking pace. User experience is becoming an increasingly crucial feature when it comes to the digital landscape. It defines how the user feels and thinks about your product from his or her own perspective. It is about making something valuable, easy to use and effective for your target market. However, in a market where quality and performance always come before brand loyalty, creating a fluid user experience (UX) is key to the success of any mobile app development project. REFERENCES [1] Andrà ©s LuceroEmail author, James Clawson, Joel Fischer and SimonRobinson Mobile collocated interactions with wearables: past, present, and future Nov 2016 [2] Oscar TomicoEmail author and Danielle Wilde Soft, embodied, situated connected: enriching interactions with soft wearables June 2016 [3] Jens GrubertEmail author, Matthias Kranz and Aaron Quigley Challenges in mobile multi-device ecosystems Aug 2016

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Heart Imagery in Great Expectations :: Great Expectations Essays

Heart Imagery in Great Expectations The heart is a symbolic barometer in Great Expectations that carries us from chapter to pulsating chapter. The novel's characters are forever wearing their hearts on their sleeves and in the process end up baring their souls within the text itself, and without, to the reader. What is the significance of hearts and their many states as described when Pip unfolds his own dramatic rags-to-riches-to-grace tale? Several scenes probe Miss Havisham's psyche with words about the condition of her heart. By analyzing them, we may be able to guess to what purpose Charles Dickens employs the heart imagery so frequently and so effectively. Â   For all the allusions which connect Miss Havisham to death-upon seeing her at the dressing table, Pip is immediately reminded of "some ghastly waxwork" and "a skeleton in the ashes of a rich dress," (93) -she is far from dead. Keeping her alive is the promise of youth: Estella and Pip. The promise the children give Miss Havisham, however, is not wholesome or optimistic, and neither is her communication with them. The first thing Miss Havisham reveals to Pip is that she suffers from a broken heart, "[uttering] the word...with strong emphasis, and with a weird smile that had a kind of boast," (94). This seems an odd confession for an adult to heave upon a child. Private miseries are kept quiet in order to spare children from the harsh reality of adult life. Â   But Miss Havisham is not worried about sparing anyone. Because she holds the family fortune, no one will insist that she snap out of her reverie of grief. Her intention is that Estella will learn to break men's hearts as recompense for Miss Havisham's having been broken. She admits to "sick fancies," and her demeanor so troubles Pip that he remarks, "Her contempt for me was so strong, that it became infectious, and I caught it" (95). Yet Pip is ready to forgive Miss Havisham for reducing him to self-hatred, even on that very first day: He tells us that as she watches the card game, Miss Havisham had "the appearance of having dropped... under the weight of a crushing blow" (96). Her posture softens him and he returns to Satis House over and over, even as he knows he is "under" the house's "influence" and it makes him "continue at heart to hate [his] trade" (158).

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Incest :: essays research papers

â€Å"INCEST† I never in life want to see you again! Door slams. Mother breaks down and cries again. She lies down in her room. Her son lies beside her to comfort her. Mom rubbed him, kissed, and told him she loved him. She woke him up in the morning; he gathered his pajamas from the edge of the bed and on the floor. Mom today was extremely happy this morning. Dad no longer being around and me taking his place was just the thing that mom needed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Are there true causes to why there is a desire to want to have sexual preferences with someone younger, vulnerable, and also in the family?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This is stereotyped as incest or incestuous relationship. A number of thing depression, obsession, passiveness and many others could cause this. When an offender tries to pursue this type of relationship, he or she may use bribing, manipulating situations and or threating action to get what they are after. Once the relationship is started. The victim will reject and will want to expedite the situation because he/she will begin to feel that this is not normal. The victimizer is afraid to stop because as long as he/she know that it is a secret, they are safe; since, it is lawfully wrong and may cause mental disturbance with the child for life. Father-daughter incest is responsible for 70-90 percent of incestuous relationships, yet this may seem like the only type of incest although there are others: Mother-son incest, the son wanting to keep the mother happy after a separation, divorcee or death can cause this. The son feels as though he must uphold the responsibilities of a fatherly figure. While the son is innocently trying to help the mother, she is taking advantage of the generosity given by her son. Father-son incest is usually caused by a troublesome or psychotic father figure, though it is not noticeable or violent. It may begin with mutual fondling, masturbation, oral genital contact, or exposures. This type of incestuous relationship is not found very often, it is considered to be breaking two taboos – first the molestation of a child, and second homosexuality. In this case homosexuality is considered to be unimportant as part of the motivation. Mother – daughter incest is the least reported type of incest, studies show that 97 percent of ht e offenders are men. The 3 percent involve mother-son and mother-daughter relationships.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Technical Description Sample

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION LOT-1 PCS-01-005351 A parcel of land (Lot-1, Pcs-01-005351, being a portion of Lots-165 and 166, PLS-1110, Alilem Public Land Subd. L. R. C. Rec. No. ___________) situated at Brgy. Poblacion, Mun. of Alilem, Prov. of Ilocos Sur, Island of Luzon. Bounded on the S. along line 1-2 by Guis-it St. (10. 00 m. wide); on the W. along line 2-3 by Lot-167, PLS-1110; on the N. along line 3-4 by Lot-164, PLS-1110 and on the E. along line 4-1 by Lot- 2 of the consolidation and subd. plan. Beginning at a point marked â€Å"1†of Lot-1 on plan, being S. 65?. 02’ E. , 348. 29 m. from BLLM No. 1, PLS-1110, Alilem Public Land Subd. thence N. 7? 42’ W. , 16. 41 m. to point 2; thence N. 10? 27’ E. , 30. 59 m. to point 3; thence S. 69? 49’ E. , 16. 76 m. to point 4; thence S. 10? 42’ W. , 28. 29 m. to point 1; point of beginning, containing an area of FOUR HUNDRED EIGHTY FIVE (485) SQUARE METERS. All points referred to are indicated on the pl an and were marked on the ground with BL cyl. conc. mons. 15Ãâ€"40 cms. except points 1 and 4 which are PS cyl. conc. mon. 15Ãâ€"50 cms. Bearings Grid, date of orig. survey was on April-May, 1983; date of consol. and subd. survey was on October 10, 2010 executed by Engr. Edmund A. Soliven and was approved on August 11, 2011. CERTIFIED CORRECT:

Monday, September 16, 2019

How Democratic was Andrew Jackson?

Andrew Jackson was a democratic man by supporting the people’s choices and wanting their voices to be equally heard, however that is not the case throughout his presidency. He is considered â€Å"Democratic† because he wanted everyone’s opinions to be heard and equally represented. Democracy can have different meanings, but ultimately they all correspond with each other. A democracy is a government ran by the people through the representatives that were elected. The democracy has a principle of equality between social classes and between individuals.Jackson believed that the rich and powerful people got away with bending the acts of the government to get what they wanted, as shown in document F. He wrote a bank veto message to congress on July 10th, 1832, Jackson is worried that the more than one fourth of the stock is in foreign hands and the rest is in the hands of the richest class citizens. Jackson believes that the rich and powerful people bend the acts of t he government to fulfill their selfish needs.Andrew Jackson wants the liberty and independence to be restores in the banks for our country. Andrew Jackson’s childhood as shown in the background essay was about how he grew up and what he was exposed to as a child. Jackson’s father died before he was born so his mother was his primary caretaker who did not have much money. He also enlisted in the Revolutionary war at the young age of 13; imagine being 13 and going to war, now of days that kind of exposure to adolescences is absurd.Andrew Jackson was not an easy child to raise, but his attitude, hard headed personality, and persistence can be seen as a benefit in document D explaining that no matter how old Jackson was, he always had that stern attitude with him. In this document Jackson insisted that all the offices from the appointed or elected should be under the control of the peoples rule. Also he thought it would be fairly equal if the President should only serve a single term of four years, this way if one need of the people was not satisfied then hopefully the next President would succeed in that flaw.Although Jackson’s harsh personality may have been beneficial at times, at other times it can be interpreted different. Document E shows a picture of Andrew Jackson dressed as a king standing upon the Constitution of the United States that is ripped to pieces. This is obviously a political cartoon coming from someone who did not support Jackson’s decisions. The cartoon is inferring that Jackson acted as a king and made his own rules, rather than acting like the President. Some of the decisions he brought about made it difficult for people to see him as democratic.For example in document O it showed a chart of Andrew Jackson’s slaveholdings, the numbers visibly increased during his presidency throughout 1829-1837. This goes in the complete opposite direction of democracy. Personally it seems like Jackson was only democratic when it referred to his needs also. This is not saying that Jackson was some kind of manipulating jerk who only cared about himself, he just did things not completely for the people’s needs, and document M proves exactly that point.Jackson did do a very noble and heartwarming thing by adopting Lyncoya, especially since Lyncoya had no one to take care of him and the other people wanted him dead. In the letter he wrote to his wife Rachel he said that it â€Å"Charity and Christianity says he ought be taken care of† this proves he honestly did care about others and ultimately did want the best thing for them. On the other hand the other letter he wrote to Rachel was telling Rachel to tell their adopted son to read his book and do what she said, showing that Lyncoya must have been acting out.Taking Lyncoya out of his comfort zone and everything that he knew may have not been the best thing for him; Jackson was trying to convert him into the American lifestyle that Lyncoya was not used to. The Indian removal map in document L shows that the natives were not respected among the Americans. All the natives from the Seminole tribe in Florida, to the Choctaw tribe in Mississippi were forced into the Indian territory located by Arkansas and Missouri, or in other words out of the states. And in Document K shows that the natives were not included in this democracy since their opinions did not matter to the rest of the United States.The Cherokee Nation just wanted to live on the land that they lived on for years, they didn’t want to be moved to a better place, they wanted to stay on their land because it was sentimental to them and it was their home. They didn’t rebel against the American people , but lived in peace with and fought together as alliances. The natives just wanted to stay where they grew up and that was what they spoke.Andrew Jackson did seem like he cared about the Indians in document J by trying to help the Indians out by setting up a distinct area for them to live, but  what he didn’t listen to or understand was that it was their home, not just a place where they lived. In conclusion, you could say that Andrew Jackson was democratic by the way he wanted to help the lower class be heard and brought equal to the wealthier class. But then again his encounters with the Native Americans and the facts with his slaveholdings make him seem undemocratic. However, I really do believe that Andrew Jackson tried to do the best thing for the people, but I do not believe that he elaborated much on some of the complicated situations he dealt with throughout his time as President.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Third Gender

Kaleen Rodriguez ENC 1102 Exploratory Essay The Third Gender What is the role of the third gender in South Asia? How does Asian society identify the third gender? I walked into my best friend Joel’s room this morning extremely excited to have lunch with him after a long four months without seeing him and on my journey to his room I picked up a paper that was lying by his door. I picked it up and the title was â€Å"Hijra† as I continued to read this paper, it had me very intrigued, fast. It so happens that earlier that week I was talking to my mom about Pride Fest which is a LGBT festival here in South Florida.So, my question arose, how do others across the world view what we recognize as the LGBT community (Gay,Lesbian,Bi-sexual, and Transgender)? , and finding this paper only made my thought more concise, what is â€Å"The Third Gender†? In the west we have LGBT and we also have drag queens who are men who act as women for a short period of time under certain c ircumstances and it is acceptable. The definition of gender as a performative (Butler) is defined as how you act in your society. Doing research for this topic was significantly easy; finding various points of views was the harder part.Looking through scholarly essays I was able to find â€Å"With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India† by Reddy, Gayatri and â€Å"The Hijras of India. †Ã‚   by Nanda, Serena. Two of which were my primary resources for what I am about to explain. In South Asia there is LGBT, but what they consider cross dressers, and transvestites are called Hijra’s which generally is considered a third gender role in India. Hijra’s are males who dress and act as females. There are rites of passage for becoming a Hijra.This rite of passage includes the act of removing the genitals and burying them in the ground which basically show they’re devotement to the Hijra life style, but less than 10% actually commit to eli minating their genitals (Gueste0d1c4). Hijra’s adopt female aspects and behavior. Some Hijra’s are sex workers and some are performers and that is how they earn a living, which causes them to live outside of the city in their own communities. The ones that live in the community and are sex workers live in worse conditions then those who are performers (Reddy, Gayatri ).By performer’s I mean Hijra’s do performances at weddings and festivals. All of their performances are focused and essentially done for Bahuchara Mata (Mother Goddesses), who is worshipped all over India. Mother Goddess is said to have given the Hijra’s a special place in Indian society, so because of this, all Hijra’s devote themselves to her. Overall besides the relationship with the Mother Goddess, the relationship that is most important in the Hijra community is the one with the Guru which is a master/teacher and also a Chela which is a disciple (Gueste0d1c4).Therefore, wh en a person wants join the Hijra community they are taken to a city called Bombay and become acquainted with one of the major Gurus, in total there are seven. (Reddy, Gayatri) Being on the outside looking in. What gives the Hijra’s power also eliminates their power in society because they emasculate themselves to prove they’re actually Hijra’s, but in that sense they could never be accepted in society because they could never be a man to produce children, which essentially is the role of a man.At times most Hijra’s are maltreated because of this. Hijra’s have rules under their own domain. The most prominent cultural aspect of the Hijra is the asexual description, although many Hijra’s are said to be homosexual (Nanda, Serena). They identify themselves as neither a man nor woman, being perfectly imperfect. As a Hijra, there are many times you might encounter a discourteous crowd and the way they show their response towards this is to lift the ir skirts or dresses and show their maimed genitals (Nanda, Serena).Taking a few moments in my day to question what the Hijra’s really feel do they feel that they are in the wrong body as many trans gender’s claim or do they just wish to be of the opposite sex? I wanted to see Hijra’s what they looked like, their gestures and all. I decided to YouTube a video on them and I was able to find it and many different answers to my question above. It came to my attention that more than half of the Hijra’s documented have been attracted to men from a very young age, or so they say.The first Hijra in this YouTube video began her story by saying that she always admired the woman lifestyle, wearing the gem in the middle of their eyebrows the clothing attire also known as a saree and as she grew up her walk became more feminine and the way she spoke only followed, basically insisting that she was born in the wrong body. Although, the other small percent in this video mostly agreed that as they grew up and were raised as a male, they just wanted to be like a woman but they are clear on the fact that they were or are men (Ambujablue's Channel).Becoming more engaged in the Hijra lifestyle I googled as a form of research and I simply typed in â€Å"Hijra Culture† the first thing that arose was a link to a slide show done in 2007. Here I found the history of Hijra’s regarding the Karma Sutra (an ancient Indian text), which is said to have mentioned a third gender (Gueste0d1c4). This to Hijra’s must mean the world, mostly because it somewhat proves that they’re not just getting the transgender idea from the western culture, but that it has existed in the Indian culture long before.Being a Hijra was said to be a disturbing view to the South Asian society, but after India gained their independence the anti-Hijra law was removed. In many different places where I tried to find a statistic of how many Hijras there are, I could not find an accurate number but there is said to be somewhere between 50,000 to 500,000 Hijras in South Asia (Gueste0d1c4). There are two significant theory’s about Hijra’s, one is that every Hijra’s starts as a sex worker, then performer. The second theory is that they are always separate, either a sex worker or a performer never both.Rules only exist within their society, and once outside of the Hijra community these rules don’t exist; they are simply seen as a transgender person. The Hijra’s are very prone to being infected with HIV/AIDS because of being sex workers. Truth be told, that is how they make a living even though their living is not anywhere near a good standing. It is very difficult for a Hijra to be invited to perform in a wedding or a child’s birth, so being sex workers is their best option. Hijra’s are not only maltreated emotionally but also physically.Those who are completely against the Hijra culture abuse them, b rutally. They beat them in their own homes, along the streets, in markets, even in police stations (Gueste0d1c4). Knowing this reminds me that this is something most transgender societies have in common, they are abused mostly verbally on the Western side but the physical abuse is still taking action. As I continued my research I attempted to find various points of view on the Hijra, little did I realize there are really only three; for, against, or nonchalant.I thought to myself well, most people in the Western society have altered their point of view to for or nonchalant on the transgender topic and are disclosing being against it. Meanwhile, maybe not as rapid but slowly, those on the other side of the world are adapting to this view or â€Å"Third Gender† as well. What I did as another form of research was conduct a survey in order to get a general outlook on what others believe or think about the Hijra. I surveyed a total of twenty people. Ten of which were my family and friends and ten who were complete strangers.The response I generally received was â€Å"whatever makes them happy† basically proving that the outlook is shifting drastically in comparison to a few years prior. I only received three responses out of twenty that were completely against the Hijra, and I also realized that those three people were all around the same age range which was 57-62. I believe that says something only because it is common that the older generations in our society are more likely to be against this â€Å"new† LGBT â€Å"trend† as they say. Only enforcing that as the generations increase it is becoming more accepted.All of this research has shown me that there is more to being a Hijra then what many of us know or think we know. It is something one must truly want and it is a decision you have to stick with no matter how challenging times may get. Works Cited: Ambujablue's Channel, . â€Å"Documentary . † Youtube . N. p. , 2008. Web. 1 9 Mar 2012. . Chisel, Jasmonae. â€Å"The Hijras of India†. Xavier University. Voice Lab no. 9. WorldPress. com Gueste0d1c4, India. N. p. , 2009. Web. 19 Mar 2012. . Meena Balaji and Ruth Lor Malloy. â€Å"Hijras: who we are† Think Asia, 1997. 32 pgs. Print. Nanda, Serena. â€Å"The Hijras of India. †Ã‚  Journal of Homosexuality  (1986): 35-54. Web. Reddy, Gayatri. â€Å"With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India†. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 2005. 78-98. Print. Reddy, Gayatri. ‘Men’ Who Would Be Kings: Celibacy, Emasculation, and the Re-Production of Hijras in Contemporary Indian Politics. Social Research; Spring2003, Vol. 70 Issue 1. Print.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Rhetoric Essay Essay

Rhetoric devices make persuasive writing very effective and more interesting to read. Studying rhetoric devices in English class, I have learned how to use and see these in effective writing. While some may argue that persuasive writing is not strengthen by rhetoric devices but by evidence, I certainly believe that rhetoric devices connect and deliver very strong persuasive writing to an audience. Rhetoric devices, mainly ethos, logos, and pathos, make persuasive writing very effective because they support and strengthen the arguments. Ethos is the art of connecting or appealing to an audience ethically. Both Martin Luther King Jr. and Barbara Jordon are well known and have many supporters; therefore they are very credible, and many people would listen. Hundreds of people come to the speech and thousands more listen to it afterwards; these events, due to the size of the audience, draw more and more supporters. Being well known is very important because it gives a foundation and support to build on. Using facts, logos are very strengthening because it shows how some goals can be achieved. Barbara Jordon use of logos is one of the major reasons why the speech is. A perfect example of this is Barbara Jordon’s All Together Now speech. Being very truthful, Jordon is able to strengthen her argument and appeal to her supports. She shows that democrats have made mistakes and how racial segregation affected her life. She also is able to show that equality, regardless of gender, race, religion, or economic position, is necessary and how is transforms the country as a whole. Martin Luther King, although not as much a Jordon, uses logos to define his speech. Bringing a different view, he is able to convey how life would be better without the segregation. He tells about the dreams he has and says that it is possible to gain. Logos show the facts; however, it is not the strongest element when it comes to persuasion. The most effective of the rhetoric devices, pathos connects deeply to the audience by using emotional characteristics. Because it shows that the speaker knows and experiences what the audience does, pathos gives a very important reason on why the audience should support the speaker. Unlike Barbara Jordon, Martin Luther King uses pathos very efficiently throughout his speech, I Have a Dream. Civil rights activist, MLKJ gives the speech to increase the support for equality. Being segregated against and viewed upon as different, King is easily able to connect to his audience, who are also segregated against and viewed differently. In his dreams, King  tells about his children, however speaking as a whole community, he emotionally expresses that not only his children, but also the children of the audience should be able â€Å"live in a world where they are not judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character†. Using repletion, King shows confidence and how everything he talks about is possible. that Barbara Jordon also uses this technique by asking question and showing, like the audience, she does not know the answer to everything. She also shows this by showing the audience the effects of a national community, where everyone is equal. To sum up, rhetoric devices are crucial elements when it comes to persuasive writing. Ethos, logos, and pathos are examples of rhetoric devices that support and strengthen the arguments being made. Martin Luther King Jr. and Barbara Jordon both use rhetoric devices and are able to create very strong and effective speeches and bring more supports f or their cause.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Blockbuster Hbr Case Essay Example for Free

Blockbuster Hbr Case Essay One of Blockbuster’s biggest value drivers is geographic location. Most people, especiall in urban areas live pretty close to a Blockbuster location. Availability of titles is also a value driver that not all video stores can provide. Their reputation is also a value driver. Economies of scale are one of Blockbuster’s largest cost drivers. The ability to negotiate with movie studios with leverage while their competitors can’t as effectively win lower prices for inventory purchases gives a huge advantage. The aforementioned reasons are ammunition to defened against competitors. Geographic location and leveraging the brand name recognition are two of the most important advantages that Blockbuster has that none of its competitors can easily overcome. After the formation of Blockbuster, the first major technological substitute to come along was the DVD (the digital versatile disc) and the DIVX (digital video express disc). There was a fierce battle between these two rival substitutes as they waged war. Both were looking to become the sole technology that would replace VHS. Blockbuster remained on the sidelines for the first few years after these technologies were introduced even though 8 major motion picture studios had committed to either DIVX or DVD (6 for DIVX and 2 for DVD) Once Antioco had made a decsion as to back DVD for a multitude of reasons, Blockbuster’s decision would lead to the demise of DIVX. Antico decided that DVD offered the most promise. They were more widespread, DVD player units were more readily available and they were cheaper. About a year after Blockbuster decided to back DVD, Circuit City decided to give up on the DIVX technology. Blockbuster also faced competition from consumer’s decsion to buy DVDs as opposed to renting them(sell through). Antioco saw this as a potential threat and decided to sell through used DVDs at a discount at Blockbuster stores. Along with some promotions, such as a free rental with the purchase of a movie, Antioco’s plan was expected to triple Blockbuster’s share of the video sales market. In 2003 Disney developed a technology much like DIVX called EZ-D. The plan was eliminate the return of rented videos as the disc would be discared 48 hours after opening because a chemical would render it useless. The technology ultimately failed as Blockbuster did not back the technology because for just a few dollars more (EZ-D discs retailed at $5-$7) consumers could outright purchase a DVD with unlimited use. One of the newest substitutes to threaten blockbuster is online video sales. This market is cannabilizing Blockbuster’s sell through numbers and Blockbuster is countering with their own online sales. Another is home delivery service. Even though this service had promise with more than a few firms, they all failed for a multitude of reasons and never posed a real threat. Netflix, a video subscription service with no late fees is also a substitute that Blockbuster is facing. After much initial success, Blockbuster decided to start their own subscription pricing model in which consumers can pay a flat fee each month for unlimitied rentals at their retail outlets. Eventually adding the feature where consumers can opt to either receive/return the discs through the mail similar to netflix or to receive/return them at a retail location to satisfy an immediate need. This option gives them a competitive advantage over Netflix. Blockbuster Hbr Case. (2018, Oct 22).

Project finance of power plant Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

Project finance of power plant - Essay Example Emerging markets have also employed the concept3. For instance, a company may want to undertake some oil exploration and extraction. The process is very expensive. The company may convince several sources to finance its project, with an agreement that upon finding the oil and extracting it, they will have a share of the proceeds. Repayment is therefore based on the success of the project and the future cash flow determines the amounts each source gets4. The principal participants project financing transaction include both national and international banks; national and international sponsors; government banks; capital markets; amongst others. The company seeking financing for the project will usually formulate a proposal that it presents to the various participants. Based on the strength of the project proposal, the company will get the funding subject to repayment terms. The terms are not fixed. They depend on the bargaining power of each of the contracting party5. The risk factor in such an arrangement is evident. The creditors lend the company undertaking the project the money not having a clear picture of whether or not they will get repaid6. They undertake a risk analysis that informs their decision to come aboard. We shall look at project financing, how it works, the risk involved and how lawyers go about addressing the risk issues and cushioning their clients from loss as much as possible. Given the complexity of a project financing transaction, the number of players involved and their nature and the amount of money invested, the risk is very high. There is need to effectively manage the risk to ensure every party is cushioned from possible losses that may arise as a result of an unforeseen circumstance. Heinz-Peter Berg provides a 7 steps risk management procedure.7 Establishing goals and context: In this step, the environment of the project is reviewed to

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Top Ten Sustainability Initiatives Of General Motors Essay - 3

Top Ten Sustainability Initiatives Of General Motors - Essay Example Toyota Motor is one of that company that is extensively engaged in environmental sustainability and green initiatives. The company is the world’s largest automotive manufacturer, and manufactures, and designs a diverse product line that ranges from sports and luxury vehicles to minivans, trucks, cars, and buses. The subsidiaries of the company also manufacturer vehicles: Hino Motors manufactures buses and trucks while Daihatsu Motor manufactures mini vehicles. The company produces automotive parts for its own as well as for sale to others. The popular brand of the company includes Corolla, Land Cruiser, Camry, Lexus line and Tundra Trucks. Environmental Scanning A company is compelled to adopt the strategy that is being implemented by its competitors. Toyota Motors has three major competitors. Ford Motors General Motors Honda Motors Green Initiatives of Ford Motors On April 22, for the recognition of Earth Day, Ford Motors developed a list of top ten latest green initiatives t aken by the company. The global sustainability strategy of the company includes an emphasis on the development of environmentally friendly technologies for the production of vehicles. Some of them include diesel, hybrids, advanced engine and transmission, bio-diesels, fuel cells, plug-in hybrids, E85 Ethanol, and hydrogen internal combustion engines. Moreover, the company is commencing sustainability efforts across the entire organization in material, facilities management, and manufacturing. The commitment of the company in green vehicle technologies will lead to improved fuel economy and reduced emission of CO 2. Other green initiatives will assist in reducing the environmental impact through the reduction in pollution and conservation of energy, along with saving the customers money (Noria Corporation). Top ten green initiatives taken by Ford Company are mentioned subsequently. 1. Ford is considered the leader in better performing fuel-efficient 6-speed transmission

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Ethos pathos and logos Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Ethos pathos and logos - Essay Example been consuming healthy foods for a long time since my very early childhood so that the audience knows that what I am saying is not just theory but a reflection on my personal life experiences. To establish pathos in the presentation, I would try to make emotional connection with the audience by enriching my speech with gestures that reinforce my ideas, by randomly asking the audience easy questions to keep them engaged with me, including funny pictures wherever possible in the presentation not only to entertain the audience, but also to give them a break now and then, and by sharing with them some experiences of my mom’s friends who have suffered great losses in life because of consuming unhealthy foods. To establish logos in the presentation, I would organize the slides in a way that my speech reflects smoothly point after point as I make it. I shall suggest certain eatables and drinks that can be made available in the cafeteria within the school’s budget so that everybody knows that what I am proposing is practicable and thus not to be taken

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Common History of oppression of people of African descent and Research Paper

Common History of oppression of people of African descent and indigenous peoples in the United States and South Africa - Research Paper Example Black South Africans faced much discrimination against them during the colonial period whose effects can be felt to this day. The period of apartheid was characterized by the racial segregation of the majority Africans by the government. The apartheid period lasted for forty-six years (1948-1994) and during this time, many sufferings were incurred on the part of the majority African inhabitants. This research paper will primarily look at the crimes and violations committed, harms caused to the majority south Africans, the setbacks that can still be felt, the losses suffered and finally clearly lay out the reasons why the black Africans in south Africa should be compensated. Apartheid simply meant separation. It was more concern with putting apart the white and the black inhabitants. It can be seen that the separation had always existed in South Africa. This is evident in the 1913 Land Act, which suggested the separation of living areas for both whites and blacks (Lötter 21). The black inhabitants were forced to move to reserves while the whites were left to dominate and control all the available resources. In 1948, apartheid intensified after the white dominated Afrikaner National Party (ANP) won the elections.The goal of this separation was not only to separate Africans from the whites but also to separate Africans from one another by dividing them within their ethnic lines so that they could their political power. The inhabitants were separated into four groups, the majority blacks, whites, the colored people and Indians. The colored were a mixed race, which sometimes saw families being separated as parents could be classified as white while chil dren were seen as non-whites, therefore, alienated. 80% of the land was given to the whites while the other majority races only occupied the remaining 20% (Lötter 14). To further emphasize on separation, the government made sure that the whites had separate and better public facilities apart from

Monday, September 9, 2019

Shakespeare Hamlet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Shakespeare Hamlet - Essay Example Through the characterization of Hamlet, Shakespeare is able to investigate and illustrate the nature of insanity in its various forms. In the play Hamlet, Shakespeare portrays the character of Hamlet in a way that supports both the idea that Hamlet is insane and that Hamlet is not mad. In so doing, the author explores the duality of the single human brain, whereby the person shows the due ability of being both mentally unstable and mentally stable all at the same time. This is displayed by Hamlet as being probably very divergent in nature and complex to comprehend in Shakespeare’s understanding of insanity. Readers view Hamlet as a man of reflection rather than a man of action. The notion that Hamlet is not insane is supported by the proposal that he only exhibits insanity so that he can say and behave in the manner he wants and get away with it. In the play by Shakespeare, Hamlet is able to rebuke the marriage of his mother and uncle without getting in trouble. He has for a long time snow had a sneaky suspicion that his uncle could have indeed killed his father to inherit throne and marry his mother. In fact, he calls Polonius a tedious fool and a fishmonger but he walks scot-free. By faking insanity, Hamlet is not only able to get away with whatever he utters, but he is also able to act in cruel manner towards Ophelia. Ophelia, his girlfriend is in fact convinced beyond doubt that Hamlet has gone crazy. Hamlet is scolded by Gertrude for upsetting his uncle but Hamlet is able to evade the situation by letting his insanity as he conducts an investigation on what could have actually happened to his father. However, Hamlets ability to think and speak in a lo gical way shows that he is not really insane as portrayed throughout the play. Hamlet is as rational as everyone else when he is around his friend Horatio. In various instances throughout the play, Hamlet shows his trust in Horatio. Moreover, Hamlet acts irrationally and speaks out his opinions about

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Portfolio Diversification Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Portfolio Diversification - Essay Example client of Bill Guru’s and was â€Å"very happy† with Bill’s advice and professionalism, in helping here rebalance and reallocate her portfolio that resulted in its increasing value over the years without much volatility. Bill wanted to diversify her portfolio and reduce its beta, thereby minimising the risk inherent in her portfolio. The case presumes that the individual betas of the 5 stocks are greater than the market index beta of 1. It is the task of Bill Guru to explain to Mrs. Jones what diversification meant and what the advantages were of having a diversified portfolio. He also needed to explain why at her stage in life she would need her portfolio to be rebalanced and her assets reallocated to meet her needs both for capital appreciation and for steady income. At the same time, Bill would have to discuss with Mrs. Jones the possibility of putting part or all of her assets in other forms of investments such as money market funds or fixed income securities such as Treasury bills or Treasury bonds. The possibility of transferring all of her investments to fixed income securities would preclude the question of a beta coefficient as the latter applies only to stocks in relation to the main market index such as the FTSE. On the other hand, if a significant part of her assets continues to be invested in stocks, the beta would be a relevant concept. He will need to explain the impact of the overall market on her stock portfolio as the market is subject to systematic risks. Also he has to explain that there are factors that affect a particular stock and a particular industry, factors that are unique or specific to the stock in question. The rebalancing of Mrs. Jones’ portfolio may take any form that is tailored to the particular situation and needs. Some kind of distribution among different types of securities would have to be discussed with her that would take into account the need for steady income in the form of interest and dividends as well as

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

Research - Essay Example The detrimental effects of the continuous industrialization and modernization of the corporate world had turned the trend of the organizations and companies from the objectives of financial prowess solely towards expansion of aims and priorities in terms of responsibilities thus including the welfare of the environments and surroundings including the adjacent communities and other issues related to ethics and behaviours of the employees and the members of the company or organization. The CSR then can be defined on the basis of giving attention to three objectives that includes the profitability in the financial aspect, the social responsibility and the environmental issues and concerns (Catalyst Consortium, 2002). In the study that had been undertaken, the main objectives and aims include the research, analysis and presentation of data related to corporate social responsibility. The said concerns are achieved through the gathering of researches that had been conducted by different academic groups and authors and comparing results and methods that had been applied. Through the said procedures the areas that are covered and studied can be generally viewed. In turn then, the main output of the research conducted is the presentation of the view on the said issue at a glance. The review of the published papers in CSR can be considered to present an access that can introduce the data in the said field of discipline. In the review conducted, three published papers on CSR that had been presented after the year 2000 had been included and analyzed on the basis of different points. The research design characteristics are points that are considered important that had been presented in the research works that had been studied. The summary of the characteristics of the papers is presented in tabulated form (Appendix 1-4). The main issue that is discussed in the articles under study is the effects of CSR with other

Friday, September 6, 2019

Against Abortion Essay Example for Free

Against Abortion Essay How would you feel if someone took away your ability to live? Imagine not having any say in whether or not you want to have a life. Well babies dont have a choice in their mother’s womb. If a woman decides to abort her baby, they cant do anything about their life being taken away from them. Their whole future is demolished. I believe abortion is wrong when committing it for a selfish reason. One reason why I dont support abortion is because it can harm the mother as well. You are highly risking the mothers life and affecting her. Not only does it have an effect on the USA but, it affects other countries as well like Spain. According to psychiatrist and member of the Right to Life Committee, Carmen Gomez-Lavin states that: Sixty five percent of women who abort suffer symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome after undergoing the procedure. Many women are regretting that choice. Abortion can also result into not being able to get pregnant in the future, many sickness and even death. Abortion affects both victims in dangerous and physical ways. Another reason is Abortion is Murder! And Ill bet if you asked an unborn baby if he wants to be murdered, it would tell you to at least wait until it was old enough to fight back. My last reason is a baby can feel pain. Even though it may not be fully formed, a baby in the second trimester is still able to feel pain. Why do you think a baby starts kicking its moms stomach whenever the father makes stupid noises at it? I agree with the reasons why they’d find it alright to abort the baby in some ways. The pro-choice believe this due to the fact of not harming the baby from your sickness but another option is adoption! You’ll still be able to let the baby live. For teen pregnancies, there are some religious beliefs as to where you shouldn’t have premarital sex. If you don’t want a child, you shouldn’t have sex at a young age because it’s not always safe. Also, abortions can result into a risk of getting ill, physical damage, stopping you from having a child again or even death. Not only will the baby die, but the mother will as well. One last reason for the side that agrees with abortion is that they believe outlawing it, would be discrimination. Women with a lower income can lead them to into joining in an illegal abortion or a ‘black-market’ abortion. Getting an abortion illegally can cause much more harm to the mother and baby than giving birth. I believe that it is not worth risking the lives of you and your child for a surgery I believe abortion is wrong when used for not good reasons. There are many other things you can do to prevent abortion. There are reasons why I dont support it. You can use adoption as a solution, it can harm the mother as well, and you are a taking an innocent life. Teenagers can rise awareness and either speak or show how strongly they believe about this topic. Abortion should not be legalized.

Thursday, September 5, 2019

Analysis of Marks and Spencer Group PLC

Analysis of Marks and Spencer Group PLC The principal activities of the company are retailing clothing, food and home products. Marks Spencer operates in the secondary and tertiary sectors. It operates in the secondary sector as it manufactures finished goods and it is associated with textile production. It operates majorly in the tertiary sector as it provides goods and services to the population and to other businesses. A group of companies is one which consists of two or more companies between which there is a parent/subsidiary relationship and they are usually under the same ownership and maybe management. The group balance sheet will differ from that of the company since it includes the total of each individual company balance sheet of all the companies together us one compared to the company balance sheet which includes all the transactions of the company. i) total assets  £7258.1 millions total liabilities  £5157.5 millions net assets  £2100.6 millions ii) The difference between the total assets and the total liabilities is the net assets which can be also called as the groups capital. When you add the fixed assets with the current assets and then subtract the current liabilities from the Balance sheet, the total that you write down is called Net Assets. i) profit after tax (52 weeks ended 28 March 2009)  £506.8 millions (52 weeks ended 29 March 2008)  £821.0 millions Net profit margin 2009 5.6% 2008 9.1% ii) The net profit margin has significantly fell because of the exceptional costs incurred to the firm during the current accounting period due to the economic recession that affected considerably the markets MS operates in. The firm had to spend  £135.9 millions on exceptional costs, due to a change in its strategies, compared to 2008 when it had no exceptional costs. i) MS uses straight line method which is a method that allocates the amount to be depreciated evenly over the useful life of the asset. Some of MSs uses of depreciation are the following: Freehold land not depreciated Freehold and leasehold buildings with a remaining lease term over 50 years depreciated to their residual value over their estimated remaining economic lives Leasehold buildings with a remaining lease term of less than 50 years over the remaining period of the lease Fixtures, fittings and equipment 3 to 25 years according to the estimated life of the asset. ii) The straight-line method of depreciation is a method that allocates the amount to be depreciated evenly over the useful life of the asset. For example for something with a total cost of  £500 and an estimated useful life of 5 years, using the straight-line method, the annual depreciation charge will be  £100. On the other hand the reducing balance method is the method in which the depreciation is expressed as a fixed percentage on the reducing balance of an asset. In simpler words the amount of depreciation gets reduced every year. For an asset of a total cost of  £500, using the reducing balance method by 20%,it means that the value of the asset will decrease 20% of its value each year. After year 1, the net book value will be  £400 and then for the next year the value will drop to  £320 and so on. iii) Property, Plant and Equipment as at 29/3/2009  £4.834.0 millions (a)  £725.1 millions straight line depreciation (b)  £1450.2 millions reducing balance depreciation iv) By using the straight-line method of depreciation the reported profit of the group will be reduced by about  £400 million as depreciation is placed under the expenses category in the income statement and it will also be deducted from the assets current value in the balance sheet. On the other hand, by using the 30% reducing balance method, profit will decrease even more and the assets value on the balance sheet will be reduced even more. The more depreciation they charge the less net profit they get for the current period. i)  £285.2 millions ii)1371.9/365=3.76 millions/day 285.2/3.76à ¢Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‹â€ 76 days worth of sales. iii) The ratio of trade debtors and customers to sales is about 20%. This seems quite high but for such a large company like Marks and Spencer, which generates so much cash from operations (sales), is not much of a concern. However it would be better for the company to try and minimize this ratio in the next years. Stewardship accounting is the provision of information by managers to owners for the purpose of avoiding a potential conflict between managers and owners. Directors act as agents of the shareholders, or as stewards on their behalf. The stewardship function requires directors to act in the best interests of the company at all times. Where shareholders are remote from the management of their company there is potential for the directors to take action that benefits themselves rather than benefiting the shareholders. This is one of the potential problems of the stewardship relationship. If directors wish to manipulate financial information they are well placed to do so. Shareholders can be assured that the annual financial information they receive has not been distorted by requiring an audit by an independent auditor. Until recently all companies were required to have an audit of their annual financial statements. i) current Ratio= Current Assets/ Current Liabilities = 1389.8/2306.9= 0.60:1 Quick Ratio= (Current Assets- Stock and prepayments)/ Current liabilities = (1389.8-536.0)/2306.9=0.37:1 ii) The current ratio and the quick ratio are both liquidity ratios. They are commonly used to assess the liquidity of a business. As a general rule, a current ratio of 1.5 or greater can meet near-term operating needs sufficiently. A higher current ratio can suggest that a company is hoarding assets instead of using them to grow the business not the worst thing in the world, but its something that could affect long-term returns. The Quick Ratio is a much more exacting measure than the Current Ratio. By excluding inventories, it concentrates on the really liquid assets, with value that is fairly certain. An acid-test of 1:1 is considered satisfactory unless the majority of your quick assets are in accounts receivable, and the pattern of accounts receivable collection lags behind the schedule for paying current liabilities. i)There are many factors that determine the share prices but only some factors can directly influence them. One of these factors is demand and supply. The price is directly affected by the trend of stock market trading. When more people are buying a certain stock, the price increases and when more people are selling the stock, the price falls. Secondly news is a huge factor that influences the shares price. Positive news about a company can increase buying interest in the market while negative news can decrease it. It is the overall performance of the company that matters more than news. The earning per share is the profit that the company made on the last quarter and it is also a huge factor that can affect the share prices. Every public company needs to publish a quarterly report that states the earning per share. By this way they influence the buying tendency in the market resulting in the increase in the price of that particular share. So, one needs to watch on the quarterly reports of the companies and before buying any shares. ii) MarksSpencer Share prices My evaluation of Marks and Spencers performance thus far for this current accounting period is positive. First of all the company uses a long term plan and any short term decreases in revenues or profits is acceptable. The profit margin ratio has increased in 2009 from 13.43% to 23.45% so despite the recession MS managed to increase its profit margin. On the other hand the earning per share has decreased for 2009 from  £0.49 to  £0.32 per share. Though the profit margin has increased the earning per share has decreased and that is not positive for us investors. The firm might have a long term plan that is indeed promising but thus far this season we investors are concerned about the effect of the recession on the firm and more specifically on our earnings per share.

Wednesday, September 4, 2019

International Policy Analysis: Methodology

International Policy Analysis: Methodology 1. Introduction The last decade has witnessed many international developments that have profoundly affected the destinies of nations and humanity. The emergence of American unipolarism, the horrific attacks of September 11, and the rise of militant Islam, as well as the birth of the Euro and the business unification of affluent Europe are all important developments that have had far reaching effects on international affairs. However, these developments have been overshadowed by the rise of the phenomenon of globalisation, a process through which the developing world, riding on the strength of its low costs and ever expanding skill and knowledge base, has started integrating rapidly into the global economy. Most organisations operating in areas of government, business and not for profit need to work with the global community and operate in accordance with structured or informal international policies, which in turn define both their initiatives in the international arena as well as their responses to global developments. International organisations and international policy networks, in which many national bodies play a part, have significant roles in global governance. Considering that movements in goods and services are the causal factor behind the globalisation effort, multinational corporations and other organisations involved in overseas activity essentially need to have formalised international policies. Efficient and methodical analysis of international policy is an intriguing and specialised area of social research that involves deep understanding of social theory and international affairs, as well as sound familiarity with research tools. It is the objective of this manual to elaborate and describe the methodology that needs to be followed to analyse the international policies of different organisations in diverse environmental settings. 2. International Policy Analysis An assignment for analysis of international policy can arise either from an organisation responsible for framing the policy or from an external body wishing to analyse the policy of another organisation for specific purposes. Analysts could be part of in-house teams working on framing or implementing policies, or of external consultancies or think tanks engaged in the preparation of dispassionate appraisals. Researchers and analysts should also realise that many users of policy analyses have been disappointed with its results, despite the plethora of analytical studies and the increasing competence in the area. The proliferation of policy analysis has not, however, been matched by an examination of whether the annual production of hundreds of thousands of memos, briefings, articles, reports, books, and sundry policy prognosticationsinformed and otherwiseare actually useful to policymakers. What we do know is not encouraging: In public policy making, many suppliers and users of social science research are dissatisfied, the former because they are not listened to, the latter because they do not hear much they want to listen to (Lindblom (Hird, 2005) It thus becomes critically important for the analyst to understand the nature of the organisation desiring the analysis and its reasons for doing so. A thorough understanding of these reasons becomes invaluable in planning the assignment and in its subsequent conduct. Areas in international policy that need analysis are generally diverse and could encompass economic, political, security, environment or trade concerns. The framing of international policy primarily involves the evaluation and choice between different courses of action, programs and policies that are intended to address and resolve issues regarding social, economic and political issues in the global arena. It is the objective of this manual to guide policy advisors on the adoption of a systematic approach in the conduct of international policy analysis. It draws on the writing and theory of Carl Patton and other social researchers, all of whom find place in the bibliography. A policy analysis assignment involves certain steps in its execution and calls for the observance of certain principles to ensure the validity of its result. This manual commences with a discussion of the concept of policy, especially in relation to power and governance. It, thereafter, briefly takes up the practical principles that need consideration while planning and conducting the research, and then elaborates the sequential steps required for its proper execution. Policy A policy, very briefly, is a formulated plan used for the guidance of decisions and action and is used by groups, associations and organisations in the governmental and private sectors. An interesting and comprehensive definition refers to policies as â€Å"political, management, financial and administrative mechanisms arranged to reach explicit goals.† (Policy, 2006) >From universities and schools to public agencies and large corporations, policy is increasingly being codified, publicized and referred to by workers and managers as the guidelines that legitimate and even motivate their behaviour. To adapt a metaphor from Arthur Koestler (1967), policy is the ghost in the machine—the force which breathes life and purpose into the machinery of government and animates the otherwise dead hand of bureaucracy. (Shore Wright, 1997, p. 5) In a world that is becomingly increasingly complex, situations or problems are dynamic and incapable of proper definition. The process for policy formulation commences with the identification of issues and the development of various alternatives to deal with them. A rigorous and far-reaching assessment of the various alternatives leads to the selection of the final policy, which then needs proper implementation and monitoring. Very obviously, policies affect environments, societies and the lives of people, and while they can result in the greatest of good, they can lead to disastrous mistakes and to the commitment of the greatest crimes. The holocaust was a result of policy and so is the WHO’s global polio eradication programme. Policies have become a major institution of western and international governance and are distinguished into formal policy, embodying policy principles and objectives, and operational policy, which comprise of mechanisms for implementation and delivery. In the international policy of a trading organisation, the formal policy may, for example, require trade with East Asia with the clear definition of environmental and child labour constraints, whereas the operational policy would detail whether the operation would be controlled by the corporate headquarters in Europe or the regional hub in Singapore. Practical Principles of International Policy Analysis International policy can appear to be contradictory and difficult to understand. The analyst must try to understand and focus on the central and essential core of the policy, which in turn could involve cost, environmental, humanitarian or nuclear proliferation concerns. Policies frequently have several and opposing objectives, some of which suffer from poor definition. Analysts must thus try to focus on the core issues for analysis and not spend time on peripheral matters. Carl Patton and David Sawicki (1993) in their book â€Å"Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning† state that that the principles described below should help in planning and conducting an analytical assignment on international policy. Ideally, analysts should base their approach on using analytical tools appropriate to the issue at hand and refrain from thrusting their preferred method onto the assignment. The chosen method should be simple, transparent, logical, based upon common sense and tailored to the issue under scrutiny. In many cases, policies are uncertain about issues and there is a lack of clarity in approach. Researchers must thus be ready to take uncertainty in their stride and realise that despite their best efforts some areas will remain cloaked in uncertainty; this constraint should however not be allowed to retard the progress of the analysis or devour too much of the time allotted for the assignment. International policy involves factors that are frequently alien to domestic situations and requires an understanding of different cultures and political systems. An international aid organisation, for example, may have to provide succour to the citizens of a country known to have a notoriously corrupt government. In the absence of quantitative data, which is usually the norm in such cases, any analysis of international policy must necessarily depend upon subjective interpretation for projecting outcomes. While some factors of international policy are bound to be subjective and incapable of interpretation or analysis through numerical data, numbers do throw light on many issues and are useful for projecting outcomes. The use of quantitative techniques and numerical data thus becomes important, wherever appropriate. Simplicity in analysis and the use of figures are also often effective in driving home the distinguishing features of different alternatives, especially during client inter action. It is also very important for analysts to check their facts exhaustively, try to appreciate the viewpoints of people with radically different opinions and arrive at analyses, not opinionated decisions. Steps in Policy Analysis Effective analysis of international policy requires an understanding of world affairs, a firm grounding in the social sciences and familiarity with quantitative and qualitative research tools. Moreover as much of the data is subjective and needs informed interpretation, international policy analysis falls as much in the domain of art as that of science. Given the choice between too much of structure in charting of an analytical assignment and leaving everything to the judgement of the researcher, it is advisable to follow a few sequential steps in the conduct of the assignment. Policy analysts, as a rule follow a series of six easily distinguishable steps. While some experts advocate the breaking of these steps to make the process simpler, this manual stays with the practice of adopting six important steps. These steps start with the definition of the problem and are followed by establishment of criteria for evaluation and collection of evidence, identification of alternatives, evalu ation of alternatives, distinguishing among alternatives, and finally implementation and monitoring of policy. a. Definition of the Problem A policy analysis exercise must necessarily commence with the definition of the problem. This step is crucial and integral to the success of the project. It provides the reason for the exercise and gives direction for gathering of evidence. While a certain amount of experience helps in defining and detailing the issue, the process should be iterative and the â€Å"definition’ exercise repeated a few times. A meaningful effort at problem definition will enable the researcher to state the problem appropriately, determine its scale, eliminate extraneous matter, and question both the thinking and the definition of the issue. While defining the problem it is important to use quantitative data, study similar projects and locate relevant data. This will help in removing uncertainties, illuminating objectives, resolving divergences and focussing on the essence, i.e. the core issue. â€Å"Problem definition is a crucial step. However, because it is hard to get it right (the) same ste p (might be needed) again and again. Over the course of analytic work, empirical and conceptual understanding will evolve.† (Bardach, 2000, p. 7) b. Establish Evaluation Criteria The next step involves the establishment of criteria for evaluation and collection of evidence. This is essential to crystallize the modus of measurement of policy goals, bring about uniformity and establish similar criteria for assessing different alternatives and policy outcomes, desirable or otherwise. A number of factors, including costs, net gains, efficacy, fairness, organizational comfort, legal validity and suitability need consideration while establishing evaluation criteria. Most of the time spent on policy analysis happens because of the time required to gather data and time needed to think. While thinking is obviously by far the more important activity, data gathering is laborious and takes time. Data helps in three ways in the projection of realistic outcomes of policy and in the analysis of its implications. One purpose is to assess the nature and extent of the problem(s) you are trying to define. A second is to assess the particular features of the concrete policy situation you are engaged in studying. The third purpose is to assess policies that have been thought, by at least some people, to have worked effectively in situations apparently similar to your own, in other jurisdictions, perhaps, or at other times. (Bardach, 2000, p. 8) c. Identification of Alternatives Establishment of evaluation criteria leads to the next step, i.e. the identification of alternatives. The generation of alternatives requires imagination, knowledge and the ability to constructively brainstorm with other experts. The challenge of identifying alternatives, as good or possibly superior to the given policy, calls for combining ideas from different alternatives as well as from the one under study. It is important at this stage to assess the impact of any change in public policy that could have taken place in the interim or may well take place in the short and medium term. Public policy changes can occur due to a number of reasons, namely changes in the political establishment following elections, changes in budget, changes in the political structure of foreign countries or occurrences of disasters like the Tsunami or the Bird Flu epidemic. International policy, by its very nature is not prone to change at short notice and the assimilation of the possible effect of future changes into the generation of alternatives has proved to be very helpful in projecting policy outcomes. d. Assessment of Alternatives The identification of alternatives results in a need for their evaluation in terms of the benefits that each of them could provide vis-à  -vis established criteria. Data collection may again be required at this stage for the assessment of different alternatives and the projection of possible outcomes. This is a crucial phase of the process as new aspects of the problem could now surface, leading to reiteration of the various steps of the analysis. The evaluation of alternatives should actually focus on evaluating the outcomes of the different proposals as trade-offs between different alternatives cannot occur in the absence of projected outcomes. The criteria for evaluation should encompass different perspectives like costs, efficacy, fairness, equity and justice. Carl Patton (1993) states that evaluative criteria could also include issues like free markets, economic freedom, capitalism, freedom from government control, equality of opportunity, equality of result, free speech, relig ious freedom, privacy and safety. The analyst must bear in mind that the objective of the exercise is analysis for a specific user and not the handing down of a considered decision and should thus try to be as broad ranging as possible in the choice of evaluative criteria. e. Distinguish and Display Alternatives Evaluation of alternatives and outcomes makes it possible for the analyst to assess the extent of benefits met by individual alternatives, in the context of previously decided criteria, and in distinguishing between them. In case of conflict between alternatives that do not easily fit into the matrix of benefits, it is possibly advisable to go by the alternative that suits existing public policy. Issues of legality and political acceptability are also very important while distinguishing between alternatives and it would be patently unwise to consider alternatives, which while satisfying other criteria, skirt legal requirements or could end up as politically difficult to implement. While distinguishing and displaying alternatives, the analyst should focus on simplicity of presentation, use of tables and quantitative data and the highlighting of worst and best case scenarios for each alternative. The report must be clear, simple, tabulated properly and be easy to comprehend. f. Implement and Monitor Policy Once a policy alternative is accepted it is the role of the analyst to round off the exercise by planning for its implementation and creating a system to monitor policy outcomes. The monitoring and effective implementation of international policy is crucial as improper application and inadequate monitoring could result in undesirable outcomes and policy failure. International policies need to be very carefully monitored during implementation to ensure that unintentional changes do not occur and actual outcomes can be measured against those projected. 3. Conclusion The analysis of International Policy falls under the domain of applied social research and is a complex task that requires knowledge of social sciences, grounding in international affairs and familiarity with the tools of social research. A detailed and comprehensive understanding of the core issues involved in policy analysis assignment is a sine qua non and possibly the most crucial part of the analytical process. International policy analysis involves the use of quantitative and qualitative data, a variety of approaches to the subject and choice of appropriate methodology. Analysts must be ready to work â€Å"out of the box† at all times, especially in the identification of various alternatives. Policy analysis, while it uses scientific and statistical tools, is very interpretative in its approach and liable to bias. It is thus imperative that the exercise has a structured and phased approach and that all assumptions are identified clearly. Records should be kept accurately, information must be accessed from multiple sources and relevant professional and ethical considerations addressed appropriately to ensure the success of the exercise. Bibliography Bardach, E. 2000. A Practical Guide for Policy Analysis: The Eightfold Path to More Effective Problem Solving. New York: Chatham House Publishers. Feller, I. 1986 Universities and State Governments: A Study in Policy Analysis. New York: Praeger Publishers. Fischer, F. Forester, J. (Eds.). 1993. The Argumentative Turn in Policy Analysis and Planning. London: UCL Press. Gross, F. 1954, Foreign Policy Analysis. New York: Philosophical Library. Hird, J. A. 2005, Policy Analysis for What? the Effectiveness of Nonpartisan Policy Research Organizations. Policy Studies Journal, 33(1), 83+. Hogwood, B. W., Gunn, L. A. 1984. Policy Analysis for the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 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